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Theoretical and experimental studies of 2,2-bipyridine for nanocrystalline zinc-nickel deposition

  • Zhongbao FengEmail author
  • Dagang Li
  • Lin Wang
  • Qiang Sun
  • Pai Lu
  • Pengfei XingEmail author
  • Maozhong An
Original Paper


A nanocrystalline Zn-Ni alloy with an average grain size of 25 nm was electrodeposited from an alkaline bath with 2,2-bipyridine. An effective approach using electrochemical experiments and quantum chemical calculations was employed to investigate the effect of 2,2-bipyridine on the process of Zn-Ni deposition. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that the ring structure (especially nitrogen atoms) in 2,2-bipyridine is the most active reactive site for its adsorption. 2,2-bipyridine can form effective and stable surface adsorption on the electrode surface by sharing electrons between the ring structure and Zn-Ni atoms. The addition of 2,2-bipyridine does not change the single-step two-electron transfer mechanism with the diffusion-controlled process of Zn-Ni growth. However, better corrosion resistance and wear resistance of nanocrystalline Zn-Ni alloys is obtained with 2,2-bipyridine, which can be associated with the rapid formation of hydrophobic nature on nanocrystalline Zn-Ni alloys, and its smoother surface as well as higher hardness and lower friction coefficient, respectively.


Zn-Ni alloys Electrochemical behaviors Quantum chemical calculations 2,2-Bipyridine Wear resistance 



The authors are grateful for the support by the Jiangsu Province Cultivation Base for State Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Science and Technology, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (N172503012 and N172504029), National Natural Science Foundation of China (21503033), and Certificate of China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Grant (2018M631809).

Supplementary material

11581_2018_2786_MOESM1_ESM.docx (179 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 178 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of MetallurgyNortheastern UniversityShenyangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Jiangsu Province Cultivation base for State Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Science and TechnologyChangzhou UniversityChangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringHarbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinPeople’s Republic of China

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