An eco-friendly water-soluble graphene-incorporated agar gel electrolyte for magnesium-air batteries
- 108 Downloads
Agar is used to prepare an environment-friendly water-soluble graphene (WSG)-incorporated gel electrolyte for magnesium-air batteries. WSG is synthesised and incorporated into the different concentrations of agar. Their effects on the electrochemical performance in the battery cell are investigated through the ionic conductivity, corrosion and current discharge studies. The open-circuit voltage (OCV) of the assembled cells is between 1.7 and 1.6 V. The optimal gel electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of 8.62 × 10−2 S cm−1. The discharge capacity and energy density of assembled Mg-air battery with respect to Mg can reach up to 1010.60 mAh g−1 and 1406.09 mWh g−1, respectively. The performance of the assembled Mg-air battery is notable in regard to the small area, size and thickness of the laminated structure. In conclusion, WSG-incorporated 3% w/v agar gel electrolyte exhibits the highest electrochemical performance, which is an economical, inherently safe and environmentally benign biopolymer electrolyte for Mg-air batteries.
KeywordsAir battery Agar Water-soluble graphene Gel electrolyte Biopolymer
This work was supported by the Grand Challenge (GC002A-15SBS) and the IPPP-UM (PG219-2016A).
- 8.Yan Y, Khoo T, Pozo-Gonzalo C, Hollenkamp AF, Howlett PC, MacFarlane DR, Forsyth M (2014) Roles of additives in the trihexyl (tetradecyl) phosphonium chloride ionic liquid electrolyte for primary Mg-air cells. J Electrochem Soc 161(6):A974–A980Google Scholar
- 13.Monisha S, Mathavan T, Selvasekarapandian S, Milton Franklin Benial A, Aristatil G, Mani N, Premalatha M, Vinoth pandi D (2017) Investigation of bio polymer electrolyte based on cellulose acetate-ammonium nitrate for potential use in electrochemical devices. Carbohydr Polym 157(Supplement C):38–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Lih ETY, Ling TL, Chong KF (2012) Facile corrosion protection coating from graphene. Int J Chem Eng Appl 3(6):453–455Google Scholar
- 33.Bo Z et al (2014) Green preparation of reduced graphene oxide for sensing and energy storage applications. Sci Rep 4(4684):1–8Google Scholar
- 41.Selvalakshmi S, Mathavan T, Selvasekarapandian S, Premalatha M (2018) Effect of ethylene carbonate plasticizer on agar-agar: NH4Br-based solid polymer electrolytes. Ionics 24(8):2209–2217Google Scholar
- 45.Hernandez-Carmona G, Freile-Pelegrin Y, Garibay EH (2013) Conventional and alternative technologies for the extraction of algal polysaccharides. In: Dominguez H (ed) Functional ingredients from algae for foods and nutraceuticals. Woodhead Publishing Limited, La Vergne, pp 475–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 47.Lebrini M, Lagrenée M, Traisnel M, Gengembre L, Vezin H, Bentiss F (2007) Enhanced corrosion resistance of mild steel in normal sulfuric acid medium by 2,5-bis(n-thienyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazoles: electrochemical, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical studies. Appl Surf Sci 253(23):9267–9276CrossRefGoogle Scholar