Advertisement

Ionics

pp 1–5 | Cite as

Optimizing the particle-size distribution and tap density of LiFePO4/C composites containing excess lithium

  • Jianhe Hong
  • Wenfei Wei
  • Gang He
Original Paper
  • 19 Downloads

Abstract

LiFePO4 is a promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, but its inferior tap density leads to low-volumetric energy density of Li-ion batteries. This work reports that lithium amount can tune the particle-size distribution and tap density of the Li1 + xFePO4/C (x = 0–0.16) composites prepared via a wet chemistry method followed by carbon thermal reduction reaction. Excess lithium effectively prevents the agglomeration of primary particles, tunes the particle-size distribution, and thus improves the tap density of Li1 + xFePO4/C composite. The charge transfer resistance of the Li1 + xFePO4/C composite decreases with the increase of lithium amount. The Li1 + xFePO4/C composite with x = 0.12 exhibits a high tap density of 1.55 g cm−3 and a discharge capacity of 156 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C. Therefore, the tap density and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4/C composite could be conveniently tuned by lithium amount, indicating a facile and promising technique for LiFePO4/C composite preparation.

Keywords

Li-ion batteries Cathodes Materials preparations 

Notes

Funding

This study was funded by the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province of China (grant number 2017CFB688).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Wang JJ, Sun XL (2015) Olivine LiFePO4: the remaining challenges for future energy storage. Energy Environ Sci 8:1110–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Franger S, Le Cras F, Bourbon C, Rouault H (2002) LiFePO4 synthesis routes for enhanced electrochemical performance. Electrochem Solid-State Lett 5:A231–A233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eftekhari A (2017) LiFePO4/C nanocomposites for lithium-ion batteries. J Power Sources 343:395–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zheng Y, He YB, Qian K, Liu DQ, Lu QW, Li BH, Wang XD, Li JL, Kang FY (2017) Influence of charge rate on the cycling degradation of LiFePO4/mesocarbon microbead batteries under low temperature. Ionics 23:1967–1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cheng WH, Wang L, Zhang QB, Wang ZJ, Xu JB, Ren W, Bian L, Chang AM (2017) Preparation and characterization of nanoscale LiFePO4 cathode materials by a two-step solid-state reaction method. J Mater Sci 52:2366–2372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang JG, Liu HY, Liu HZ, Fu ZH, Nan D (2017) Facile synthesis of microsized MnO/C composites with high tap density as high performance anodes for Li-ion batteries. Chem Eng J 328:591–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jin Y, Tang XC, Wang HY (2016) Solvothermal synthesis and self-assembling mechanism of micro-nano spherical LiFePO4 with high tap density. RSC Adv 6:75602–75608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li WX, Zhang HJ, Mu YP, Liu L, Wang Y (2015) Unique synthesis of novel octahedral micro/nano-hierarchical LiFePO4 cages as an enhanced cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. J Mater Chem A 3:15661–15667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zheng ZM, Tang XC, Wang Y, Jin Y, Meng J, Liu WM, Wang T (2015) Solvothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of flowerlike LiFePO4 hierarchically microstructures. Chinese J Inorg Chem 31:731–738Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gong H, Xue HR, Wang T, He JP (2016) In-situ synthesis of monodisperse micro-nanospherical LiFePO4/carbon cathode composites for lithium-ion batteries. J Power Sources 318:220–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wu YN, Zhou L, Xu GQ et al (2017) Synthesis and electrochemical properties of cake-like LiFePO4/C with high tap density. Chinese J Inorg Chem 33:1423–1428Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hu L, Zhang TW, Liang JW, Zhu YC, Zhang KL, Qian YT (2016) Trace Fe3+ mediated synthesis of LiFePO4 micro/nanostructures towards improved electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries. RSC Adv 6:456–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Caban-Huertas Z, Ayyad O, Dubal DP, Gomez-Romero P (2016) Aqueous synthesis of LiFePO4 with fractal granularity. Sci Rep 6:27024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wu YF, Liu YN, Guo SW, Zhang SN, Lu TN, Yu ZM, Li CS, Xi ZP (2014) Hierarchical carbon-coated LiFePO4 nano-grain microspheres with high electrochemical performance as cathode for lithium ion batteries. J Power Sources 256:336–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kang SH, Kim BR, Kim C, Park TJ, Son JT (2015) Electrochemical and morphologic studies of spherical LiFePO4/nanostructured LiFePO4 fibers composite by solid-state blending. Ceram Int 41:1963–1969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Paul BJ, Kang SW, Gim J, Song J, Kim S, Mathew V, Kim J (2014) Nucleation and growth controlled polyol synthesis of size-focused nanocrystalline LiFePO4 cathode for high performance Li-ion batteries. J Electrochem Soc 161:1468–A1473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hong JH, Wang YF, He G, He MZ (2012) A new approach to LiFePO4/C synthesis: the use of complex carbon source without ball milling. Mater Chem Phys 133:573–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kim DK, Park HM, Jung SJ, Jeong YU, Lee JH, Kim JJ (2006) Effect of synthesis conditions on the properties of LiFePO4 for secondary lithium batteries. J Power Sources 159:237–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ong SP, Wang L, Kang B, Ceder G (2008) Li-Fe-P-O2 phase diagram from first principles calculations. Chem Mater 20:1798–1807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kang B, Ceder G (2009) Battery materials for ultrafast charging and discharging. Nature 458:190–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Axmann P, Stinner C, Wohlfahrt-Mehrens M, Mauger A, Gendron F, Julien CM (2009) Nonstoichiometric LiFePO4: defects and related properties. Chem Mater 21:1636–1644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yang LM, Liang GC, Wang L, Zhi XK, Ou XQ (2010) Effect of consumption amount of lithium salt on the properties of LiFePO4/C cathode materials. J Alloys Compd 496:376–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bazzi K, Nazri M, Naik VM, Garg VK, Oliveira AC, Vaishnava PP, Nazri GA, Naik R (2016) Enhancement of electrochemical behavior of nanostructured LiFePO4/carbon cathode material with excess Li. J Power Sources 306:17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Park KY, Park I, Kim H, Yoon G, Gwon H, Cho Y, Yun YS, Kim JJ, Lee S, Ahn D, Kim Y, Kim H, Hwang I, Yoon WS, Kang K (2016) Lithium-excess olivine electrode for lithium rechargeable batteries. Energy Environ Sci 9:2902–2915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brouwers HJH (2006) Particle-size distribution and packing fraction of geometric random packings. Phys Rev E 74:031309–031314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rho YH, Nazar LF, Perry L, Ryan D (2007) Surface chemistry of LiFePO4 studied by Mossbauer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and its effect on electrochemical properties. J Electrochem Soc 154:A283–A289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang ZH, Yuan LX, Ma J, Qie L, Zhang LL, Huang YH (2012) Electrochemical performance in Na-incorporated nonstoichiometric LiFePO4/C composites with controllable impurity phases. Electrochim Acta 62:416–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Materials Science and ChemistryChina University of GeosciencesWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations