, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 641–654 | Cite as

Enhancement on amorphous phase in solid biopolymer electrolyte based alginate doped NH4NO3

  • N. M. J. Rasali
  • Y. Nagao
  • A. S. SamsudinEmail author
Original Paper


The present work deals with the development of solid biopolymer electrolyte (SBE) system using a promising biopolymer, namely, alginate doped with various amount of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3). The SBE system has been successfully prepared via the solution-casting method. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis carried out suggests that interaction has occurred between alginate and NH4NO3 via COO. The X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) also discloses that the addition of NH4NO3 affects the alginate SBE system by reducing the crystallinity and transforming it to an amorphous phase. The ionic conductivity of SBE system has been measured using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and it was found to achieve a maximum value of 5.56 × 10−5 S cm−1 at ambient temperature (303 K) for a sample containing 25 wt.% NH4NO3. The SBE system was found to obey the Arrhenius behavior where the system is thermally activated, and the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis demonstrated the decreased in glass transition temperature (Tg) upon the addition of the dopant. The mobility (μ) and diffusion coefficient (D) were found to affect the ionic conductivity trend as observed via IR-deconvolution approach. The alginate–NH4NO3 SBE sample with the highest conductivity has a transference number tion of 0.97 which further indicates that the conduction species is a cation.


Polymer electrolytes Amorphous phase Ionic conductivity Deconvolution approach 



The authors would like to acknowledge the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) Malaysia for the FRGS grant (RDU 170115) and Universiti Malaysia Pahang for the internal grant (RDU1703189) as well as the Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, University Malaysia Pahang, for the technical assistance and facilities provided for this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Advanced Materials Group, Faculty of Industrial Sciences and TechnologyUniversiti Malaysia PahangGambangMalaysia
  2. 2.Japan Advanced Institute of Science and TechnologySchool of Materials ScienceNomiJapan

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