, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 593–606 | Cite as

Influence of temperature on performance of all vanadium redox flow battery: analysis of ionic mass transfer

  • Shengsheng Yin
  • Leping ZhouEmail author
  • Xiaoze Du
  • Yongping Yang
Original Paper


The main mass transfer processes of the ions in a vanadium redox flow battery and the temperature dependence of corresponding mass transfer properties of the ions were estimated by investigating the influences of temperature on the electrolyte properties and the single cell performance. A composition of 1.5 M vanadium solutions in 3.0 M total sulfate was selected and a range of − 10–50 °C was set as the operating temperature limits. It shows that the temperature effect on the concentration polarization of reactive substances and the ionic mobility of H+ in the membrane may be the main factor affecting the performance at low temperatures, while the diffusion coefficient and the ionic mobility of vanadium ions are dominant for the performance at high temperatures. The relation between the mass transfer properties of the ions in electrolyte and the battery performance was then clarified using a route map of the temperature effects.


Diffusion Mass transfer Ionic conductivities Temperature effects Vanadium flow batteries 


a1, a2

coefficients for Eq. (15)


area of electrode (m2)

b1, b2

coefficient for Eq. (15)


concentration (mol L−1)

c1, c2

coefficients for Eq. (18)

d1, d2

coefficients for Eq. (18)


coulombic efficiency


cyclic voltammetry


diffusion coefficient (cm2 s−1)


electric field intensity, reaction potential difference (V)

e1, e2

coefficients for Eq. (19)


energy efficiency


Faraday constant (C mol−1)

g1, g2

coefficients for Eq. (20)


hydrogen ion concentration (mol L−1)


electric current (A)


mass transfer rate (mol s−l cm−2)


slope of the relation between Ip and v0.5 (A V−1/2 s1/2)


conductivity (S m−1)


length (m)


electron number exchanged in reaction


open circuit voltage (V)


electrical resistance (S−1)

\( \overline{R} \)

universal gas constant (J mol−1 K−1)


redox flow battery


state of charge (%)


saturated calomel electrode


temperature (°C)


Kelvin temperature (K)


ionic mobility


potential scanning rate (V s−1) or flow rate of solution


vanadium redox flow battery


voltage (V)


voltage efficiency


valence of the ion

Greek symbols


reaction potential (V)


time (s)



support liquid, or SOC = 0




charge, cathode or convection


discharge, dissipative or diffusion




substance i


















The authors are grateful for the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 91634115) and the National Key Basic Research Program of China (No. 2015CB251503).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shengsheng Yin
    • 1
  • Leping Zhou
    • 1
    Email author
  • Xiaoze Du
    • 1
  • Yongping Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Energy, Power and Mechanical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment of Ministry of EducationNorth China Electric Power UniversityBeijingChina

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