One-pot synthesis of pure phase Mn3O4 at room temperature and probing its long-term supercapacitive performance
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Present work deals with one-pot synthesis of pure phase mesoporous Mn3O4 nanoparticles by novel, easy, and cost-effective method at ambient conditions and probing its long-term supercapacitive performance. The co-precipitation-routed submicron MnCO3 particles (cp-MnCO3) and commercially available MnCO3 (cm-MnCO3) have been used as the precursor materials in the synthesis procedure. The nanoparticles of cp-Mn3O4 synthesized using cp-MnCO3 exhibits specific capacitance (Cs) of 290 (± 5) F g−1 at a current rate of 0.5 A g−1, whereas cm-Mn3O4 obtained from the chemical conversion of cm-MnCO3 shows Cs value of 204 (± 5) F g−1 at identical current rate. The better electrochemical behavior of cp-Mn3O4 is ascribed to its hierarchical pore size distribution and lower diffusion resistance, which facilitates an easy electrolytic ionic diffusion in the sample. cp-Mn3O4 also exhibits smaller relaxation time constant (τo = 140 ms), which allows it to deliver stored energy quickly at high power. Additionally, cp-Mn3O4 exhibits 71% capacitance retention after 15,000 cycles, 25 W h kg−1 energy density, and 202 W kg−1 power density at a current rate of 0.5 A g−1. Further, ex-situ XRD analysis demonstrates that cp-Mn3O4 retains its crystal structure to some extent even after prolonged cycles.
KeywordsSupercapacitor Mn3O4 Relaxation time Pore size distribution Cyclic stability
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Government of India is gratefully acknowledged for its financial support under project no. 22(0658)/14/EMR-II. One of the authors (A. K.) highly acknowledges CSIR, India, for the senior research fellowship (SRF, Grant number 19-12/2010(i)EU-IV). We are also very much thankful to Dr. Raju Gupta, Asst. Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Kanpur for providing BET measurement facility.
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