Phosphorus-doped carbon nanoparticles supported palladium electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in PEM water electrolysis
Hydrogen production by PEM water electrolysis is one of the most efficient methods, due to the produced high purity of gases, high efficiency, and devoid of harmful emissions. In this study, phosphorus-doped carbon nanoparticles (P-CNPs) were synthesized by spray pyrolysis method in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The synthesized P-CNPs were used as electron carrier support materials for the preparation of P-CNPs-supported palladium (Pd/P-CNPs) electrocatalyst and also used as the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrode in PEM water electrolysis. These synthesized Pd/P-CNPs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and cyclic voltammetry methods. The membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated using Pd/P-CNPs as a cathode catalyst for the HER and RuO2 as the anode for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The fabricated MEA electrochemical performances along with their corresponding yields of hydrogen production were evaluated in PEM water electrolyzer single cell assemblies at various experimental conditions. The obtained results showed that the synthesized Pd/P-CNPs observed a current density of 1 A cm−2 at 2 V at 80 °C. Further, long-term stability tested for up to 500 h continuously and showed the reasonable stability with similar electrochemical activity compared to commercial Pt/CB. Hence, the synthesized Pd/P-CNPs could be used as the alternative to Pt-based catalysts for HER.
KeywordsHydrogen production Hydrogen evolution reaction Pd/P-CNPs PEM water electrolyzer
The authors would like to express their sincere thanks to the Heavy Water Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), and Government of India (Sanction Order No. 2013/36/21/BRNS/1739) for providing financial support to carry out this work.
- 1.Sawada S, Yamaki T, Maeno T, Asano M, Suzuki A, Terai T et al (2008) Solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis systems for hydrogen production based on our newly developed membranes, part I: analysis of voltage-current characteristics. Prog Nucl Energy 50:443–448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnucene.2007.11.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Siracusano S, Di Blasi A, Baglio V, Brunaccini G, Briguglio N, Stassi A, Ornelas R, Trifoni E, Antonucci V, Arico AS (2011) Optimization of components and assembling in a PEM electrolyzer stack. Int J Hydrog Energy 36(5):3333–3339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.12.044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Naga Mahesh K, Sarada Prasad J, Venkateswer Rao M (2009) Performance of Pd on activated carbon as hydrogen electrode with respect to hydrogen yield in a single cell proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolyser. Int J Hydrog Energy 34:6085–6088. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2009.05.129 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Huang YX, Liu XW, Sun XF, Sheng GP, Zhang YY, Yan GM et al (2011) A new cathodic electrode deposit with palladium nanoparticles for cost-effective hydrogen production in a microbial electrolysis cell. Int J Hydrog Energy 36:2773–2776. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.11.114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Alexeyeva N, Sarapuu A, Tammeveski K, Vidal-Iglesias FJ, Solla-Gull_on J, Feliu JM (2011) Electroreduction of oxygen on Vulcan carbon supported Pd nanoparticles and Pd-M nanoalloys in acid and alkaline solutions. Electrochim Acta 56(19):6702–6708. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2011.05.058 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Singh RN, Awasthi R, Sharma CS (2014) An overview of recent development of platinum based cathode materials for direct methanol fuel cells. Int J Electrochem Sci 9:5607–5639Google Scholar
- 22.Suwaphid T, Napapha P, Surin S (2016) Noble metal and Mn3O4 supported carbon nanotubes: enhanced catalysts for ethanol electrooxidation. Int J Electrochem Sci 11:967–982Google Scholar
- 43.Grigoriev SA, Lyutikova E, Martemianov S, Fateev VN, Lebouin C, Millet P (2006) Palladium-based electrocatalysts for PEM applications. WHEC Lyon Fr 16:13–16Google Scholar
- 44.Martins CA, Fernandez PS, Lima F, Troiani HE, Martins ME, Arenillas A et al (2014) Remarkable electrochemical stability of one step synthesized Pd nanoparticles supported on graphene and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Nano Energy 9:142–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2014.07.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 48.Shiva Kumar S, Ramakrishna SUB, Srinivasulu Reddy D, Bhagawan D, Himabindu V (2017) Synthesis of polysulfone and zirconium oxide coated asbestos composite separators for alkaline water electrolysis. Chem Eng Process Technol 3:1035Google Scholar