, Volume 24, Issue 10, pp 3065–3073 | Cite as

Facile synthesis of three-dimensional porous carbon networks for highly stable sodium storage

  • Dan Zhou
  • Li-Zhen FanEmail author
Original Paper


Novel three-dimensional porous carbon network (3D-PC) anode was developed by a facile in situ NaCl-template method utilizing citric acid as carbon source. The synthesis process involves the dissolution of NaCl and citric acid in deionized water, citric acid coated on NaCl template during freeze-drying process, carbonization of the composites, and removal of the template with water. The resultant 3D-PC presents high electrical conductivity, large specific surface area, sufficient active sites, large interlayer distance, and high mechanical flexibility, which are contributed to the efficient Na-storage. Therefore, the 3D-PC anode displays enhanced rate performance of 101 mAh g−1 at 1000 mA g−1 and extremely long cycle life of 138 mAh g−1 after 2000 cycles at 200 mA g−1. The unique synthesis strategy coupled with the excellent Na-storage performance ensures 3D-PC a promising anode material for low-cost sodium-ion batteries.


Sodium-ion batteries Carbon networks Anode Long cycle life Low-cost 


Funding information

Financial supports from the Natural Scientific Foundation of China (51532002) and the National Basic Research Program of China (2015CB932500) are gratefully acknowledged.

Supplementary material

11581_2017_2434_MOESM1_ESM.doc (137 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 137 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering, Institute of Advanced Materials and TechnologyUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina

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