Supercapacitor electrodes from activation of binderless green monoliths of biomass self-adhesive carbon grains composed of varying amount of graphene additive
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Binderless electrodes of activated carbon monoliths (ACMs) and its composites with graphene are prepared by carbonization and activation of green monoliths consisting of self-adhesive carbon grains and 0–10 wt% KOH-treated graphene. Compared with ACMs, the optimized composite containing 6 wt% graphene exhibits more ordered micro-structures with increased crystallite height, and graphitic sp2 carbons (I D /I G = 0.49 vs. 0.91) along with enhanced porosity; as revealed by X-ray diffraction, Raman, and N2 adsorption-desorption studies. These modifications lead to increased electrical conductivity (13 vs. 9 S cm−1) through improved interconnections of carbon particles by graphene, and surface area ~ (800 vs. 456 m2 g−1) due to increased inter-particle spacing. Further, contrary to ACMs, the composite electrodes can offer faster delivery of energy in almost 50% less response time (5 vs. 8 s) due to reduced equivalent series resistance (1.67 vs. 2.65 Ω) and charge transfer resistance (0.55 vs. 1.33 Ω).
KeywordsBinderless electrodes Green monoliths Activated carbon monoliths Self-adhesive carbon grains Graphene Aqueous electrolyte Energy storage
Authors acknowledge the grants from the Ministry of Higher Education (FRGS/1/2016/STG07/UKM/02/2), (FRGS/2/2013/ST05/UKM/01/1), and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (DIP-2014-027) and the support of CRIM (Centre for Research and Innovation Management), UKM. The authors are thankful to Mr. Saini for his support in the laboratory work and for the collaborative work of Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.
Authors acknowledge the grants from the Ministry of Higher Education (FRGS/1/2016/STG07/UKM/02/2), (FRGS/2/2013/ST05/UKM/01/1), and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (DIP-2014-027) and the support of CRIM (Centre for Research and Innovation Management), UKM.
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