Ionics

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 977–987 | Cite as

Substitution effects on the bulk and surface properties of (Li,Ni)Mn2O4

  • D. Alburquenque
  • J. C. Denardin
  • L. Troncoso
  • J. F. Marco
  • J. L. Gautier
Original Paper
  • 97 Downloads

Abstract

Manganese oxides of spinel structure, LiMn2O4, Li1-x Ni x Mn2O4 (0.25 ≤ x≤ 0.75), and NiMn2O4, were studied by EDS, XRD, SEM, magnetic (M-H, M-T), and XPS measurements. The samples were synthesized by an ultrasound-assisted sol-gel method. EDS analysis showed good agreement with the formulations of the oxides. XRD and Rietveld refinement of X-ray data indicate that all samples crystallize in the Fd3m space group characteristic of the cubic spinel structure. The a-cell parameter ranges from a = 8.2276 Å (x = 0) to a = 8.3980 Å (x = 1). SEM results showed particle agglomerates ranging in size from 2.3 μm (x = 0) down to 0.8 μm (x = 1). Hysteresis magnetization vs. applied field curves in the 5–300K range was recorded. ZFC-FC measurements indicate the presence of two magnetic paramagnetic-ferrimagnetic transitions. The experimental Curie constant was found to vary from 5 to 7.1 cm3 K mol−1 for the range of compositions studied (0 ≤ x ≤ 1). XPS studies of these oxides revealed the presence of Ni2+, Mn3+, and Mn4+. The experimental Ni/Mn atomic ratios obtained by XPS were in good agreement with the nominal values. A linear relationship of the average oxidation state of Mn with Ni content was observed. The oxide’s cation distributions as a function of Ni content from x = 0  Li+[Mn3+Mn4+]O4 to x = 1 \( {\mathrm{Ni}}_{0.35}^{2+}{\mathrm{Mn}}_{0.65}^{3+}\left[{\mathrm{Ni}}_{0.65}^{2+}\right.\left.{\mathrm{Mn}}_{1.35}^{3+}\right]{\mathrm{O}}_4 \) were proposed.

Keywords

XRD Spinels Mixed oxides XPS Magnetic properties 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by CONICYT Chile (Fondecyt grant 1150371). J.F.M. thanks the support from the Spanish MINECO project MAT2015-64110-C2-1-P.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Alburquenque
    • 1
  • J. C. Denardin
    • 2
  • L. Troncoso
    • 3
  • J. F. Marco
    • 4
  • J. L. Gautier
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Química de los MaterialesUSACHSantiagoChile
  2. 2.Departamento de FísicaUSACHSantiagoChile
  3. 3.Instituto de Materiales y Procesos TermomecánicosUACHValdiviaChile
  4. 4.Instituto de Química Física “Rocasolano”CSICMadridSpain

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