Determination of tramadol in pharmaceutical products and biological samples using a new nanocomposite carbon paste sensor based on decorated nanographene/tramadol-imprinted polymer nanoparticles/ionic liquid
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In the present research, design and construction of a development potentiometric sensor based on a newly nanosensing layer for the sensitive determination of tramadol in various real samples were suggested. The proposed nanosensing layer was fabricated with the incorporation of a synthesized tramadol-imprinted polymer nanoparticles “as an efficient sensing agent” into the carbon paste matrix composed of graphite powder, decorated graphene nanosheets with silver nanoparticles, and a typically ionic liquid as the conductive pasting binder. The detection limit and the linear range of this study were found to be 2.04 × 10−9 and 3.50 × 10−9 to 1.00 × 10−2 M with a Nernstian slope of 59.85 ± 0.13 mV decade−1, respectively. The presented modified carbon paste sensor was successfully applied for the determination of tramadol in pharmaceutical and biological samples.
KeywordsTramadol-imprinted polymer Potentiometric sensor Decorated nanographene Silver nanoparticles Ionic liquid
The authors wish to thank the Young Researchers and Elite Club at the Islamic Azad University, Iran. And also, the authors thank the Researches and Technology Council, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, for the support.
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