, Volume 23, Issue 8, pp 1933–1947 | Cite as

Critical review on lithium-ion batteries: are they safe? Sustainable?

  • A. MaugerEmail author
  • C. M. Julien


The goal of this critical review is to explain why the safety problem raised by the lithium batteries must be considered. The performance of the batteries with different chemistries is compared and analyzed, with emphasis on the safety aspects, in addition to the electrochemical properties of the cells. Problems encountered with cathode materials (layered compounds, spinel and olivine), anode materials (graphite and lithium titanate), electrolytes, lithium salts, and separators are pointed out. In this critical review, we also discuss the place of the lithium batteries in the context of sustainable energies (electric vehicles, smart grid).


Lithium-ion batteries Safety aspects Cathode materials Anode materials Electric vehicles Smart grid 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC)CNRS UMR 7590ParisFrance
  2. 2.Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Physicochimie des Electrolytes et Nanosystèmes Interfaciaux (PHENIX)CNRS UMR 8234ParisFrance

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