, Volume 21, Issue 10, pp 2789–2795 | Cite as

Ionic conductivity and interfacial resistance of electrospun poly(acrylonitrile)/poly(methyl methacrylate) fibrous membrane-based polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

  • Fatemeh Roghanizad
  • Mehdi RafizadehEmail author
Original Paper


Electrospun poly(acrylonitrile) fibrous membrane (PAN-EFM) is prepared and enhanced by adding poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) and subsequently minimizing the average diameter of the PAN/PMMA blend fibers. Electrospinning of the 50/50 wt% PAN/PMMA solution is carried out with the aim of the simultaneous presence of both polymers on the fiber surface. Their presence in exterior surface is confirmed using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique next to the leaching of PMMA with acetone. The process parameters are optimized in four stable modes with the average diameter decreasing from 445 to 150 nm. Mechanical strength of the membrane is measured and reported. Comparing the sample electrochemical properties of the EFMs reveals that the addition of PMMA increases ionic conductivity from 1.02 to 3.31 mS cm−1 and reduces interfacial resistance from ~1000 to ~400 Ω. It is also demonstrated that the ~300-nm reduction in average diameter of the blend fibers increases ionic conductivity from 3.31 to 5.81 mS cm−1 and reduces interfacial resistance from ~400 to ~200 Ω.


Polymer electrolyte Lithium ion battery Electrospun fibrous membrane poly(acrylonitrile)/poly(methyl methacrylate) blend Ionic conductivity Interfacial resistance 



Authors appreciate Mr Mosavi’s help in electrospinning process. No funding had been used in this research.

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Tarascon JM, Armand M (2001) Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature 414:359–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gopalan AI, Santhosh P, Manesh KM, Nho JH, Kim SH, Hwang CG, Lee KP (2008) Development of electrospun PVdF–PAN membrane-based polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries. J Membr Sci 325:683–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jeong KU, Chae HD, Lim C, Lee HK, Ahn JH, Nah C (2010) Fabrication and characterization of electrolyte membranes based on organoclay/tripropyleneglycol diacrylate/poly(vinylidene fluoride) electrospun nanofiber composites. Polym Int 59:249–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kim JK, Cheruvally G, Li X, Ahn JH, Kim KW, Ahn HJ (2008) Preparation and electrochemical characterization of electrospun, microporous membrane-based composite polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries. J Power Sources 178:815–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Raghavan P, Zhao X, Manuel J, Shin C, Heo MY, Ahn JH, Ryu HS, Ahn HJ, Noh JP, Cho GB (2010) Electrochemical studies on polymer electrolytes based on P(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) membranes prepared by electrospinning and phase inversion-A comparative study. Mater Res Bull 45:362–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Angulakshmi N, Stephan AM (2014) Electrospun trilayer polymeric membranes as separator for lithium-ion batteries. Electrochim Acta 127:167–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carol P, Ramakrishnan P, John B, Cheruvally G (2011) Preparation and characterization of electrospun poly(acrylonitrile) fibrous membrane based gel polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. J Power Sources 196:10156–10162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhong Z, Cao Q, Wang X, Wu N, Wang Y (2012) PVC-PMMA composite electrospun membranes as polymer electrolytes for polymer lithium-ion batteries. Ionics 18:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ding Y, Zhang P, Long Z, Jiang Y, Xu F, Di W (2009) The ionic conductivity and mechanical property of electrospun P(VdF-HFP)/PMMA membranes for lithium ion batteries. J Membr Sci 329:56–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Xiao Q, Li Z, Gao D, Zhang H (2009) A novel sandwiched membrane as polymer electrolyte for application in lithium-ion battery. J Membr Sci 326:260–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cui WW, Tang DY, Gang ZL (2013) Electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride)/poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted Tio2 composite nanofibrous membrane as polymer electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries. J Power Sources 223:206–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bazilevsky AV, Yarin AL, Megaridis CM (2007) Co-electrospinning of core-shell fibers using a single-nozzle technique. Langmuir 23:2311–2314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zander NE, Strawhecker KE, Orlicki JA, Rawlett AM, Beebe TP (2011) Coaxial electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate)-polyacrylonitrile nanofibers: atomic force microscopy and compositional characterization. J Phys Chem B 115:12441–12447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim C, Jeong YI, Ngoc BTN, Yang KS, Kojima M, Kim YA, Endo M, Lee JW (2007) Synthesis and characterization of porous carbon nanofibers with hollow cores through the thermal treatment of electrospun copolymeric nanofiber webs. Small 3:91–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang C, Cheng YW, Hsu CH, Chien HS, Tsou SY (2011) How to manipulate the electrospinning jet with controlled properties to obtain uniform fibers with the smallest diameter—a brief discussion of solution electrospinning process. J Polym Res 18:111–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Huggins RA (2009) Advanced batteries. Springer Science, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schalkwijk WA, Scrosati B (2002) Advances in lithium-ion batteries. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li X, Cheruvally G, Kim JK, Choi JW, Ahn JH, Kim KW, Ahn HJ (2007) Polymer electrolytes based on an electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) membrane for lithium batteries. J Power Sources 167:491–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gopalan AI, Lee KP, Manesh KM, Santhosh P (2008) Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-polydiphenylamine composite electrospun membrane as high-performance polymer electrolyte for lithium batteries. J Membr Sci 318:422–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhong Z, Cao Q, Jing B, Li S, Wang X (2012) Novel electrospun PAN-PVC composite fibrous membranes as polymer electrolytes for polymer lithium-ion batteries. Ionics 18:853–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nano and Smart Polymers Center of Excellence, Department of Polymer Engineering and Color TechnologyAmirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations