, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 657–663 | Cite as

Highly sensitive electrochemical detection of adenine on a graphene-modified carbon ionic liquid electrode

  • Wei Sun
  • Jun Liu
  • Xiaomei Ju
  • Le Zhang
  • Xiaowei Qi
  • Ni Hui
Original Paper


A new electrochemical method for the sensitive detection of adenine was established on a chitosan (CTS)- and graphene (GR)-modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE). CILE was prepared by mixing 1-butylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate (BPPF6) and paraffin with graphite powder. Due to the synergistic effects of GR, CILE, and the interaction of GR with IL on the electrode surface, the electrochemical performance of CTS/GR/CILE were greatly enhanced. Electrochemical behaviors of adenine on the modified electrode was investigated with a single well-defined oxidation peak appeared. The electrochemical reaction of adenine was an adsorption-controlled irreversible process, and the electrochemical parameters were further calculated. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current was proportional to adenine concentration in the range from 1.0 nmol L−1 to 70.0 μmol L−1 with a detection limit of 0.286 nmol L−1 (3σ) by differential pulse voltammetry. The established method showed the advantages such as good selectivity, stability, and repeatability.


Adenine Graphene 1-Butylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate Cyclic voltammetry 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Sun
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jun Liu
    • 2
  • Xiaomei Ju
    • 2
  • Le Zhang
    • 2
  • Xiaowei Qi
    • 2
  • Ni Hui
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringHainan Normal UniversityHaikouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Chemistry and Molecular EngineeringQingdao University of Science and TechnologyQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.College of Chemistry and PharmacyQingdao Agriculture UniversityQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China

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