Advertisement

Policy Effects on Political Engagement

  • Conrad ZillerEmail author
Abhandlungen

Abstract

Public policies addressing societal problems typically aim to change citizens’ behaviors and attitudes. While scholars frequently link cross-national differences in specific policies with individuals’ attitudinal or behavioral outcomes, the specific operating mechanisms often remain veiled. The policy feedback literature provides an explanatory framework for how policies affect citizens’ political orientations and behavior, which in turn has an impact on subsequent policy developments. This article provides an overview of policy feedback mechanisms, and reviews comparative empirical studies that link policy indicators and forms of individual-level political engagement. As illustrative examples, I have focused on social policies and immigrant integration policies as two widely publicized policy areas. Since the identification of policy effects is challenging for a number of methodological reasons, I also discuss advances related to empirical design.

Keywords

Policy feedback Welfare state Social policy Immigrant integration policy Political support 

Einfluss von Policy auf politisches Engagement

Zusammenfassung

Politische Maßnahmen, die gesellschaftliche Probleme angehen, zielen in der Regel auf Verhaltens- und Einstellungsänderungen der Bürgerinnen und Bürger ab. Auch werden innerhalb der empirisch-vergleichenden politischen Soziologie länderübergreifende Unterschiede in Institutionen und Policies zur Erklärung von Einstellungs- und Verhaltensunterschieden genutzt. Allerdings werden dabei die Vermittlungsmechanismen zwischen Politik und Individuum oftmals nicht hinreichend spezifiziert und getestet. Die Policy-Feedback-Literatur bietet einen Theorierahmen, um Policies mit politischen Orientierungen und Verhaltensweisen zu verknüpfen. In dem vorliegenden Artikel wird ein Überblick über Policy-Feedback-Mechanismen und entsprechende empirische Studien gegeben. Zur weiteren Verdeutlichung werden vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Wirkung von wohlfahrtsstaatlicher Sozialpolitik sowie Integrationspolitik auf politisches Engagement vorgestellt und diskutiert. Da die Identifizierung kausaler Effekte im Rahmen der Policy-Forschung eine Herausforderung darstellt, wird abschließend auf methodische Weiterentwicklungen eingegangen.

Schlüsselwörter

Policy-Feedback Sozialstaat Sozialpolitik Integrationspolitik Politische Unterstützung 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I thank Sigrid Roßteutscher, Erik Gahner Larsen, Staffan Kumlin, and the editors of the special issue Hans-Jürgen Andreß, Detlef Fetchenhauer, and Heiner Meulemann for helpful comments.

References

  1. Allison, Paul D., Richard Williams and Enrique Moral-Benito. 2017. Maximum likelihood for cross-lagged panel models with fixed effects. Socius 3:1–17.Google Scholar
  2. Andersen, Jørgen G. 1992. Sources of welfare-state support in Denmark: Self-interest or way of life? International Journal of Sociology 22:25–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banting, Keith, and Will Kymlicka. 2013. Is there really a retreat from multiculturalism policies? New evidence from the multiculturalism policy index. Comparative European Politics 11:577–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barrett, Martyn, and Ian Brunton-Smith. 2014. Political and civic engagement and participation: Towards an integrative perspective. Journal of Civil Society 10:5–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bechtel, Michael M., Jens Hainmueller and Yotam Margalit. 2017. Policy design and domestic support for international bailouts. European Journal of Political Research 56:864–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beine, Michel, Anna Boucher, Brian Burgoon, Mary Crock, Justin Gest, Michael Hiscox, Patrick McGovern, Hillel Rapoport, Joep Schaper and Eiko Thielemann. 2016. Comparing immigration policies: An overview from the IMPALA database. International Migration Review 50:827–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brady, Henry E. 1999. Political participation. In Measures of political attitudes, eds. John P. Robinson, Philip R. Shaver, L. S. Wrightsman, pp. 737–801. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  8. Brady, David, and Amie Bostic. 2015. Paradoxes of social policy: Welfare transfers, relative poverty, and redistribution preferences. American Sociological Review 80:268–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brooks, Clem, and Jeff Manza. 2006. Social policy responsiveness in developed democracies. American Sociological Review 71:474–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brubaker, Rogers. 2012. Citizenship and nationhood in France and Germany. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bruch, Sarah K., Myra M. Ferree and Joe Soss. 2010. From policy to polity: Democracy, paternalism, and the incorporation of disadvantaged citizens. American Sociological Review 75:205–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Campbell, Andrea L. 2003. How policies make citizens: Senior political activism and the American welfare state. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Campbell, Andrea L. 2012. Policy makes mass politics. Annual Review of Political Science 15:333–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Campbell, Angus, Philip E. Converse, Warren E. Miller, and Donald E. Stokes. 1960. The American voter. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  15. Careja, Romana. 2019. Immigrants’ labor market outcomes: Contributions from multilevel studies. In Cross-national comparative research – analytical strategies, results and explanations. Sonderheft Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie. Eds. Hans-Jürgen Andreß, Detlef Fetchenhauer and Heiner Meulemann. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11577-019-00597-8.
  16. Careja, Romana, and Hans-Jürgen Andreß. 2013. Needed but not liked—The impact of labor market policies on natives’ opinions about immigrants. International Migration Review 47:374–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Citrin, Jack, Morris Levy and Matthew Wright. 2014. Multicultural policy and political support in European democracies. Comparative Political Studies 47:1531–1557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dalton, Russell J. 2014. Citizen politics: Public opinion and political parties in advanced industrial democracies. 6th edition. Los Angeles: Sage, CQ Press.Google Scholar
  19. Downs, Anthony. 1957. An economic theory of democracy. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  20. Druckman, James N., and Arthur Lupia. 2000. Preference formation. Annual Review of Political Science 3:1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Druckman, James N., and Arthur Lupia. 2016. Preference change in competitive political environments. Annual Review of Political Science 19:13–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Flores, René D. 2017. Do anti-immigrant laws shape public sentiment? A study of Arizona’s SB 1070 using Twitter data. American Journal of Sociology 123:333–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Freeman, Gary P. 2004. Immigrant incorporation in Western democracies. International Migration Review 38:945–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Giger, Nathalie. 2012. Is social policy retrenchment unpopular? How welfare reforms affect government popularity. European Sociological Review 28:691–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gingrich, Jane, and Ben Ansell. 2012. Preferences in context: Micro preferences, macro contexts, and the demand for social policy. Comparative Political Studies 45:1624–1654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goodman, Sara W. 2010. Integration requirements for integration’s sake? Identifying, categorising and comparing civic integration policies. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36:753–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goodman, Sara W. 2015. Conceptualizing and measuring citizenship and integration policy: Past lessons and new approaches. Comparative Political Studies 48:1905–1941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goodman, Sara W., and Matthew Wright. 2015. Does mandatory integration matter? Effects of civic requirements on immigrant socio-economic and political outcomes. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 41:1885–1908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Greenfeld, Liah. 1999. Is nation unavoidable? Is nation unavoidable today? In Nations and National Identity, ed. Hans P. Kriesi et al., pp. 37–54. Chur: Ruegger.Google Scholar
  30. Gundelach, Birte, and Anita Manatschal. 2017. Ethnic diversity, social trust and the moderating role of subnational integration policy. Political Studies 65:413–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hainmueller, Jens, Dominik Hangartner and Giuseppe Pietrantuono. 2015. Naturalization fosters the long-term political integration of immigrants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112:12651–12656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hamaker, Ellen L., Rebecca M. Kuiper and Raoul P.P.P. Grasman. 2015. A critique of the cross-lagged panel model. Psychological Methods 20:102–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Häusermann, Silja, Thomas Kurer and Denise Traber. 2018. The politics of trade-offs: studying the dynamics of welfare state reform with conjoint experiments. Comparative Political Studies. 1–37.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414018797943.Google Scholar
  34. Hedegaard, Troels F., and Christian A. Larsen. 2014. How proximate and visible policies shape self-interest, satisfaction, and spending support: The case of public service production. In How welfare states shape the democratic public: Policy feedback, participation, voting, and attitudes, eds. Staffan Kumlin and Isabelle Stadelmann-Steffen, 269–288. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  35. Helbling, Marc. 2013. Validating integration and citizenship policy indices. Comparative European Politics 11:555–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Helbling, Marc, Liv Bjerre, Friederike Römer and Malisa Zobel. 2017. Measuring immigration policies: The IMPIC database. European Political Science 16:79–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hooghe, Marc, and Thomas de Vroome. 2015. How does the majority public react to multiculturalist policies? A comparative analysis of European countries. American Behavioral Scientist 59:747–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hopkins, Daniel J., and Kalind Parish 2018. The medicaid expansion and attitudes toward the affordable care act. Working Paper. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2990576.Google Scholar
  39. Howard, Marc M. 2005. Variation in dual citizenship policies in the countries of the EU. International Migration Review 39:697–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Huddleston, Thomas, Bilgili, Ozge, Joki, Anne-Linde and Vankova, Zvezda. 2015. Migrant integration policy index 2015. Barcelona/Brussels: CIDOB and MPG (www.mipex.eu).Google Scholar
  41. Inglehart, Ronald. 1997. Modernization and postmodernization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Jacobs, Alan M., and R. Kent Weaver. 2015. When policies undo themselves: Self-undermining feedback as a source of policy change. Governance 28: 441–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jacobs, Lawrence R., and Suzanne Mettler. 2018. When and how new policy creates new politics: Examining the feedback effects of the affordable care act on public opinion. Perspectives on Politics 16:345–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jordan, Jason. 2013. Policy feedback and support for the welfare state. Journal of European Social Policy 23:134–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Just, Aida, and Christopher J. Anderson. 2012. Immigrants, citizenship and political action in Europe. British Journal of Political Science 42:481–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kesler, Christel, and Irene Bloemraad. 2010. Does immigration erode social capital? The conditional effects of immigration-generated diversity on trust, membership, and participation across 19 countries, 1981–2000. Canadian Journal of Political Science 43: 319–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Knill, Christoph, and Jale Tosun. 2012. Public policy. A new introduction. Basingstoke, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  48. Kogan, Irena. 2016. Integration policies and immigrants’ labor market outcomes in Europe. Sociological Science 3:335–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Koopmans, Ruud. 2010. Trade-offs between equality and difference: Immigrant integration, multiculturalism and the welfare state in cross-national perspective. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36:1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Koopmans, Ruud. 2013. Multiculturalism and immigration: A contested field in cross-national comparison. Annual Review of Sociology 39:147–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Koopmans, Ruud, Ines Michalowski and Stine Waibel. 2012. Citizenship rights for immigrants: National political processes and cross-national convergence in Western Europe, 1980–2008. American Journal of Sociology 11:1202–1245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Korpi, Walter, and Joakim Palme. 1998. The paradox of redistribution and strategies of equality: Welfare state institutions, inequality, and poverty in the Western countries. American Sociological Review 63:661–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kuehnle, Daniel, and Christoph Wunder. 2017. The effects of smoking bans on self-assessed health: Evidence from Germany. Health Economics 26:321–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kumlin, Staffan. 2014. Policy feedback in political context: Unemployment benefits, election campaigns, and democratic satisfaction. In How welfare states shape the democratic public: Policy feedback, participation, voting, and political attitudes, eds. Staffan Kumlin and Isabelle Stadelmann-Steffen, 181–197. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  55. Kumlin, Staffan, and Atle Haugsgjerd 2017. The welfare state and political trust: Bringing performance back. In Handbook on political trust. Sonja Zmerli and Tom Van der Meer, 285–301. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kumlin, Staffan, and Isabelle Stadelmann-Steffen. 2014. How welfare states shape the democratic public: Borrowing strength across research communities. In How welfare states shape the democratic public: Policy feedback, participation, voting, and political attitudes, eds. Staffan Kumlin and Isabelle Stadelmann-Steffen, 311–325. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  57. Larsen, Erik G. 2018. Policy feedback effects on mass publics: a quantitative review. Policy Studies Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1111/psj.12280.Google Scholar
  58. Lasswell, Harold D. 1936. Politics: Who gets what, when, how. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  59. Lazarsfeld, Paul F., Bernard Berelson and Hazel Gaudet. 1948. The people’s choice: How the voter makes up his mind in a presidential campaign. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  60. McLaren, Lauren M. 2015. Immigration and perceptions of national political systems in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mettler, Suzanne. 2002. Bringing the state back in to civic engagement: Policy feedback effects of the GI Bill for World War II veterans. American Political Science Review 96:351–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mettler, Suzanne. 2015. Twenty years on: Paul Pierson’s dismantling the welfare state? PS: Political Science & Politics 48:270–273.Google Scholar
  63. Mettler, Suzanne, and Joe Soss. 2004. The consequences of public policy for democratic citizenship: Bridging policy studies and mass politics. Perspectives on Politics 2:55–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Naumann, Elias. 2014. 11. Raising the retirement age: retrenchment, feedback and attitudes. In How welfare states shape the democratic public: Policy feedback, participation, voting, and political attitudes, eds. Staffan Kumlin and Isabelle Stadelmann-Steffen, 223–243. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  65. Nelson, Thomas E., and Donald R. Kinder. 1996. Issue frames and group-centrism in American public opinion. The Journal of Politics 58:1055–1078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Norris, Pippa 2002. Political activism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Pacheco, Julianna. 2013. Attitudinal policy feedback and public opinion: The impact of smoking bans on attitudes towards smokers, secondhand smoke, and antismoking policies. Public Opinion Quarterly 77:714–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Page, Benjamin I., and Robert Y. Shapiro. 1983. Effects of public opinion on policy. American Political Science Review 77:175–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Patashnik, Eric M., and Julian E. Zelizer. 2013. The struggle to remake politics: Liberal reform and the limits of policy feedback in the contemporary American state. Perspectives on Politics 11:1071–1087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pierson, Paul. 1994. Dismantling the welfare state? Reagan, Thatcher, and the politics of retrenchment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rehm, Philipp, Jacob S. Hacker and Mark Schlesinger. 2012. Insecure alliances: Risk, inequality, and support for the welfare state. American Political Science Review 106:386–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Schattschneider, Elmer E. 1935. Politics, pressures and the tariff. A study of free private enterprise in pressure politics, as shown in the 1929–1930 revision of the tariff. New York: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  73. Schlueter, Elmar, Bart Meuleman and Eldad Davidov. 2013. Immigrant integration policies and perceived group threat: A multilevel study of 27 Western and Eastern European countries. Social Science Research 42:670–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Schmidt-Catran, Alexander W., Malcolm Fairbrother and Hans-Jürgen Andreß. 2019. Multilevel models for the analysis of comparative survey data: Common problems and some solutions. In Cross-national comparative research – analytical strategies, results and explanations. Sonderheft Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie. Eds. Hans-Jürgen Andreß, Detlef Fetchenhauer and Heiner Meulemann. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11577-019-00607-9.
  75. Schmitt-Beck, Rüdiger. 2019. Political systems and electorial behavior: a review of internationally comparative multilevel research. In Cross-national comparative research – analytical strategies, results and explanations. Sonderheft Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie. Eds. Hans-Jürgen Andreß, Detlef Fetchenhauer and Heiner Meulemann. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11577-019-00608-8.Google Scholar
  76. Schneider, Anne, and Helen Ingram. 1993. Social construction of target populations: Implications for politics and policy. American Political Science Review 87:334–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schröder, Martin. 2019. Varieties of capitalism and welfare regime theories: Assumptions, accomplishments, and the need for different Methods. In Cross-national comparative research – analytical strategies, results and explanations. Sonderheft Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie. Eds. Hans-Jürgen Andreß, Detlef Fetchenhauer and Heiner Meulemann. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11577-019-00609-7.
  78. Sears, David O., and Carolyn L. Funk. 1991. The role of self-interest in social and political attitudes. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 24:1–91.Google Scholar
  79. Skocpol, Theda. 1992. Protecting soldiers and mothers: The political origins of social policy in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Snijders, Tom A. B., and Roel J. Bosker. 2012. Multilevel analysis. An introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling. 2nd ed. Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  81. Soss, Joe. 1999. Lessons of welfare: Policy design, political learning, and political action. American Political Science Review 93:363–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Soss, Joe, and Sanford F. Schram. 2007. A public transformed? Welfare reform as policy feedback. American Political Science Review 101:111–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Spies, Dennis Christopher, and Simon T. Franzmann. 2019. Party competition and vote choice. In Cross-national comparative research – analytical strategies, results and explanations. Sonderheft Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie. Eds. Hans-Jürgen Andreß, Detlef Fetchenhauer and Heiner Meulemann. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11577-019-00611-z.Google Scholar
  84. Stewart, Julie. Ed. 2012. Fiction over facts: How competing narrative forms explain policy in a new immigration destination. Sociological Forum 27: 591–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Svallfors, Stefan. 1997. Worlds of welfare and attitudes to redistribution: A comparison of eight western nations. European Sociological Review 13:283–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. van Oorschot, Wim, Tim Reeskens and Bart Meuleman. 2012. Popular perceptions of welfare state consequences: A multilevel, cross-national analysis of 25 European countries. Journal of European Social Policy 22:181–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Verba, Sidney., Kay L. Schlozman and Henry E. Brady. 2002. Voice and equality. Civic voluntarism in American politics. Cambridge, London: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Verbeek, Marno. 2004. A guide to modern econometrics. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  89. Watson, Sara. 2015. Does welfare conditionality reduce democratic participation? Comparative Political Studies 48:645–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Welzel, Christian, and Russell J. Dalton. 2014. From allegiant to assertive citizens. In The civic culture transformed: From allegiant to assertive citizens, edited by Russell J. Dalton and Christian Welzel, 282–306. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wlezien, Christopher. 1995. The public as thermostat: Dynamics of preferences for spending. American Journal of Political Science 39:981–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wright, Matthew, and Irene Bloemraad. 2012. Is there a trade-off between multiculturalism and socio-political integration? Policy regimes and immigrant incorporation in comparative perspective. Perspectives on Politics 10:77–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zaller, John R. 1992. The nature and origins of mass opinion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ziller, Conrad. 2014. Societal implications of antidiscrimination policy in Europe. Research & Politics 1:1–9.Google Scholar
  95. Ziller, Conrad. 2017. Equal treatment regulations and ethnic minority social trust. European Sociological Review 33:563–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ziller, Conrad, and Marc Helbling. 2017. Antidiscrimination laws, policy knowledge and political support. British Journal of Political Science First View: 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123417000163 Google Scholar
  97. Zukin, Cliff, Scott Keeter, Molly Andolina, Krista Jenkins and Michael X. Delli Carpini. 2006. A New engagement? Political participation, civic life, and the changing American citizen. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Sociology and Social PsychologyUniversity of CologneCologneGermany

Personalised recommendations