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Kontexteffekte von Wohngebieten

  • Jürgen Friedrichs
Article

Zusammenfassung

Der Beitrag richtet sich darauf, Ergebnisse der Forschungen über die Effekte von Wohngebieten (neighbourhood effects) systematisch darzustellen. Im ersten Teil werden methodologische Probleme erörtert, z. B. die Wahl der räumlichen Einheit, die Zahl der Ebenen und sozialen Mechanismen. Weil die bisherigen Aufzählungen von Nachbarschaftseffekten unbefriedigend sind, schlage ich eine methodologische Differenzierung von Gebietsmerkmalen und Mechanismen vor. Anschließend werden Ergebnisse empirischer Studien sowohl für die Typen von Eigenschaften als auch die sozialen Mechanismen dargestellt. Am Beispiel von Studien zu den Gebietseffekten auf die Gesundheit der Bewohner werden nochmals die komplexen Zusammenhänge erörtert. In einem folgenden Kapitel werden Forschungsprobleme behandelt, darunter die Frage nach den Wirkungen unterschiedlicher Kontexte (Wohngebiete) auf Personen gleicher Merkmale. Das abschließende Kapitel enthält eine knappe Zusammenfassung und Folgerungen für weitere Forschungen.

Schlüsselwörter

Wohngebiete Nachbarschaftseffekte Abweichendes Verhalten Armut Gesundheit 

Neighbourhood Effects

Abstract

The article reviews findings on neighbourhood effects. First, methodological problems, such as the choice of spatial units, selection bias and social mechanisms are discussed. To overcome the problem of varying lists of neighbourhood effects, I suggest a methodological distinction between characteristics of the neighbourhood and social mechanisms. In the following section, these typologies are applied to analyse findings from empirical studies on topics such as the impact of the physical environment, perceived social capital and income. The complex relationship between neighbourhood characteristics and individual outcomes is then examined using studies on the impact on physical and mental health.

Several research problems, such as the impact of different contexts on individuals of the same status are outlined in the following section. In the final chapter major findings are resumed and suggestions for further research are made.

Keywords

Neighbourhood Neighbourhood effect Poverty Deviant behavior Disorder Health 

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Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Soziologie und SozialpsychologieUniversität zu KölnKölnDeutschland

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