Advertisement

Do Management Innovations of Indigenous Firms Benefit from Managerial Spillovers from Multinational Enterprises?

  • Hongxin ZhaoEmail author
  • Muammer Ozer
  • Weidong Rong
  • Reuben Mondejar
Research Article
  • 34 Downloads

Abstract

Integrating research on foreign direct investment spillover and management innovation literature, this study develops and tests a spillover–management innovation–performance process model. The model posits that managerial spillovers, defined as the movement of managers from multinational enterprises to domestic firms, are indirectly related to the latter’s performance through management innovation, which serves as a conversion platform internalizing acquired knowledge for performance attainment. Moreover, we propose that the density of foreign direct investment and indigenous firms’ absorptive capacity moderate the spillover–innovation and innovation–performance relationships, respectively. Our findings support these propositions.

Keywords

Managerial spillover Management innovation Absorptive capacity FDI density 

Notes

Funding

This study was funded by Research Grant Council of Hong Kong (China Grants RGC 9041833) and Summer Research Grants of Richard A. Chaifetz School of Business, St Louis University.

References

  1. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  2. Aitken, B., & Harrison, A. (1999). Do domestic firms benefit from direct foreign investment? Evidence from Venezuela. American Economic Review, 89(3), 605–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almeida, P., & Kogut, B. (1999). The localization of knowledge and the mobility of engineers in regional networks. Management Science, 45(7), 905–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. AmCham (American Chamber of Commerce). (2011). 20102011 China business report. American Chamber of Commerce in Shanghai.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Antonakis, J., Bendahan, S., Jacquart, P., & Lalive, R. (2014). Causality and endogeneity: Problems and solutions. In D. V. Day (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Leadership and Organizations (pp. 93–117). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Argote, L., & Ingram, P. (2000). Knowledge transfer: A basis for competitive advantage in firms. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 82(1), 150–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Audretsch, D., & Feldman, M. (1996). Knowledge spillovers and the geography of innovation and production. American Economic Review, 86(3), 630–640.Google Scholar
  9. Bagozzi, R. P., Yi, Y., & Phillips, L. W. (1991). Assessing construct validity in organizational research. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(3), 421–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barney, J. B., & Wright, P. M. (1998). On becoming a strategic partner: The role of human resources in gaining competitive advantage. Human Resource Management, 37(1), 31–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bascle, G. (2008). Controlling for endogeneity with instrumental variables in strategic management research. Strategic Organization, 6(3), 285–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Birkinshaw, J. M., Hamel, G., & Mol, M. J. (2008). Management innovation. Academy of Management Review, 33(4), 825–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Birkinshaw, J., & Mol, M. J. (2006). How management innovation happens. MIT Sloan Management Review, 47(4), 81–88.Google Scholar
  14. Blalock, G., & Simon, D. (2009). Do all firms benefit from downward FDI? The moderating effects of local suppliers’ capabilities on productive gains. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(7), 1095–1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bloom, N., & van Reenen, J. (2007). Measuring and explaining management practices across firms and countries. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 122(4), 1351–1408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brislin, R. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1(3), 185–216.Google Scholar
  18. Buckley, P., Clegg, J., & Wang, C. (2002). Is the relationship between inward foreign direct investment and spillover effects linear? An empirical examination of the case of China. Journal of International Business Studies, 38(3), 447–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carroll, G., & Hannan, M. T. (1989). Density dependence in the evolution of populations in newspaper organizations. American Sociological Review, 54(4), 524–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Caves, R. E. (1974). Multinational firms, competition and productivity in host-country markets. Economica, 41(16), 176–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chandler, A. D. (1962). Strategy and structure: Chapters in the history of the American enterprise. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  22. Chang, S., van Witteloostuijn, A., & Eden, L. (2010). From the editors: Common method variance in international business research. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(2), 178–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chang, S. J., & Xu, D. (2008). Spillovers and competition among foreign and local firms in China. Strategic Management Journal, 29(5), 495–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. China National Statistical Bureau. (2013, 2014). China statistical yearbook. Beijing: China Statistics Press.Google Scholar
  25. Cohen, W. M., & Levinthal, D. A. (1990). Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1), 128–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Crespo, N., & Fontoura, M. (2007). Determinant factors of FDI spillovers—What do we really know? World Development, 35(3), 410–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crossan, M. M., & Apaydin, M. (2010). A multi-dimensional framework of organizational innovation: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Management Studies, 47(6), 1154–1191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Damanpour, F. (2014). Footnotes to research on management innovation. Organization Studies, 35(9), 1265–1285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Davies, F., Goode, M., Mazanec, J., & Moutinho, L. (1999). LISREL and neural network modeling: Two comparison studies. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 6, 249–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Davies, H., & Watlers, P. (2004). Emergent patterns of strategy, environment and performance in a transition economy. Strategic Management Journal, 25(4), 347–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. De Backer, K., & Sleuwaegen, L. (2003). Does foreign direct investment crowd out domestic entrepreneurship? Review of Industrial Organization, 22(1), 67–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dhanaraj, C., Lyles, M., Steensma, H. K., & Tihanyi, L. (2004). Managing tacit and explicit knowledge transfer in IJVs: The role of relational embeddedness and the impact on performance. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(5), 428–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. DiMaggio, P., & Powell, W. W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48(2), 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Djanko, S., & Hoekman, B. (2000). Foreign direct investment and productivity growth in Czech enterprises. The World Bank Economic Review, 14(1), 49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Douglas, V. W., & Morgan, N. A. (2005). Benchmarking marketing capabilities for sustainable competitive advantage. Journal of Marketing, 69(1), 80–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dunning, J. H. (1958). American investment in British manufacturing industry. London: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  37. Eapen, A. (2013). FDI spillover effects in incomplete datasets. Journal of International Business Studies, 44(7), 719–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Eden, L. (2009). Letter from the editor-in-chief: FDI spillovers and linkages. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(7), 1065–1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Edwards, J. R., & Lambert, L. S. (2007). Methods for integrating moderation and mediation: A general analytical framework using moderated path analysis. Psychological Methods, 12(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fleming, L. (2001). Recombinant uncertainty in technological search. Management Science, 47(1), 117–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fosfuri, A., Motta, M., & Ronde, T. (2001). Foreign direct investment and spillovers through workers’ mobility. Journal of International Economics, 53, 205–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Foss, N. J. (2003). Selective intervention and internal hybrids: Interpreting and learning from the rise and decline of the Oticon spaghetti organization. Organization Science, 14(3), 331–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fu, X. (2012). Foreign direct investment and managerial knowledge spillovers through the diffusion of management practices. Journal of Management Studies, 49(5), 970–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gerbing, D. W., & Anderson, J. C. (1988). An updated paradigm for scale development incorporating unidimensionality and its assessment. Journal of Marketing Research, 25(2), 186–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Girma, S., Greenaway, D., & Wakelin, K. (2001). Who benefits from foreign direct investment in the UK? Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 48(2), 119–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. González-Benito, J. (2005). A study of the effect of manufacturing proactivity on business performance. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 25(3), 222–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gorg, H., & Strobl, E. (2001). Multinational companies and productivity spillovers: A meta-analysis. The Economic Journal, 111(475), 723–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Grant, R. M., & Baden-Fuller, C. (2004). A knowledge accessing theory of strategic alliances. Journal of Management Studies, 41(1), 61–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Greene, W. H. (2012). Econometric Analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  51. Greeno, J. (1980). Psychology of learning, 1960–1980: One participant’s observations. American Psychologist, 35(8), 713–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1992). Multivariate data analysis. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  53. Hamel, G. (2006). The why, what and how of management innovation. Harvard Business Review, 84(2), 72–84.Google Scholar
  54. Hamel, G. (2007). The future of management. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  55. Harman, H. H. (1960). Modern factor analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  56. Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76(4), 408–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hayes, A. F. (2015). An index and test of linear moderated mediation. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 50(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hoang, H., & Rothaermel, F. T. (2005). The effect of general and partner-specific alliance experience on joint R&D project performance. Academy of Management Journal, 48(2), 332–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Homburg, C. H., Grozdanovic, M., & Klarmann, M. (2007). Responsiveness to customers and competitors: The role of affective and cognitive organizational Systems. Journal of Marketing, 71(3), 18–38.Google Scholar
  60. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jacobs, J. (1969). The economy of cities. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  62. Jansen, J. P., van den Bosch, F., & Volberda, H. W. (2006). Exploratory innovation, exploitative innovation, and performance: Effects of organizational antecedents and environmental moderators. Management Science, 52(11), 1661–1674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jöreskog, K., & Long, J. S. (1993). Introduction. In K. A. Bollen, & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 1–9). Newbury Park: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  64. Kaiser, U. (2002). Measuring knowledge spillovers in manufacturing and services: An empirical assessment of alternative approaches. Research Policy, 31, 125–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Keller, W. (2004). International technology diffusion. Journal of Economic Literature, 42(3), 752–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Keupp, M. M., Palmié, M., & Gassmann, O. (2012). The strategic management of innovation: A systematic review and paths for future research. International Journal of Management Review, 14(4), 367–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kim, D. (1993). The link between individual and organizational learning. Sloan Management Review, 35, 37–50.Google Scholar
  68. Kim, D., & Kogut, B. (1996). Technological platforms and diversification. Organization Science, 7(3), 283–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4th ed.). New York, London: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  70. Kostova, T. (1999). Transnational transfer of strategic organizational practices: A contextual perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 24(2), 308–324.Google Scholar
  71. Krugman, P. (1991). Geography and trade. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  72. Lewin, A. Y., Massini, S., & Peeters, S. (2009). Why are companies offshoring innovation? The emerging global race for talent. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(6), 901–925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Liao, S. H., Fei, W. C., & Chen, C. C. (2007). Knowledge sharing, absorptive capacity and innovation capability: An empirical study of Taiwan’s knowledge-intensive industries. Journal of Information Science, 20(10), 1–20.Google Scholar
  74. Lindell, M. K., & Whitney, D. J. (2001). Accounting for common method variance in cross-sectional designs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 114–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Liu, X., Wang, C., & Wei, Y. (2009). Do local manufacturing firms benefit transactional linkages with multinational enterprises in China? Journal of International Business Studies, 40(7), 1113–1151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Liu, X., Wright, M., Filatotchev, I., Dai, O., & Lu, J. (2010). Human mobility and international knowledge spillovers: Evidence from high-tech small and medium enterprises in an emerging market. Strategic Management Journal, 4(4), 340–355.Google Scholar
  77. MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., & Fritz, M. (2007). Mediation analysis. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 593–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychology Methods, 7(1), 83–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the produce and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39(1), 99–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Madhok, A., & Keyhani, M. (2012). Acquisitions as entrepreneurship: Asymmetries, opportunities, and the internationalization of multinationals from emerging economies. Global Strategy Journal, 2(1), 2–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Manpower Group (2013). Talent shortage survey results (2013, 2015). http://us.manpower.com/us/en/multimedia/2013-Talent-Shortage-Survey.
  82. March, J. G. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Meyer, K. E. (2004). Perspectives multinational enterprises in emerging economies. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(4), 259–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Meyer, K. E., & Sinani, E. (2009). When and where does foreign direct investment generate positive spillovers? A meta-analysis. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(7), 1075–1094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Miller, S. R., & Eden, L. (2006). Local density and foreign subsidiary performance. Academy of Management Journal, 49(2), 341–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Minbaeva, D., Pedersen, T., Björkman, I., Fey, C.F., & Park, H.J. (2003). MNC knowledge transfer, subsidiary absorptive capacity, and HRM. Journal of International Business Studies, 34, 586–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mol, M. J., & Birkinshaw, J. (2009a). The sources of management innovation: When firms introduce new management practices. Journal of Business Research, 62(12), 1269–1277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mol, M. J., & Birkinshaw, J. (2009b). Giant steps in management: Innovations that change the way we work. London: Financial Times Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  89. Mol, M. J., & Birkinshaw, J. (2010). Management innovation and the multinational corporation. In T. Devinney, et al. (Eds.), The past, present and future of International business and management: Advances in international management (pp. 479–495). Binley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mowery, D. C., Oxley, J. E., & Silverman, B. S. (1996). Strategic alliances and interfirm knowledge transfer. Strategic Management Journal, 17(2), 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mudambi, R. (2008). Location, control and innovation in knowledge-intensive industries. Journal of Economic Geography, 8(5), 699–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mullen, M. R. (1995). Diagnosing measurement equivalence in cross-national research. Journal of International Business Studies, 15(3), 573–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Neter, J. B., Wasserman, W., & Kutner, M. H. (1985). Applied linear statistical models. Homewood: Irwin.Google Scholar
  94. Nonaka, I. (1994). A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organization Science, 5(1), 14–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  96. Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  97. Oettl, O., & Agrawal, A. (2008). International labor mobility and knowledge flow externalities. Journal of International Business Studies, 39(8), 1242–1260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Park, S. H., & Luo, Y. (2001). Guanxi and organizational dynamics: Organizational networking in Chinese firms. Strategic Management Journal, 22(5), 455–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pennings, J. M., Lee, K., & van Witteloostuijn, A. (1998). Human capital, social capital, and firm dissolution. Academy of Management Journal, 41(4), 425–440.Google Scholar
  100. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12(4), 531–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Polanyi, M. (1962). Personal knowledge: Toward a past critical philosophy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  103. Porter, M. E. (1998). Competing across locations: Enhancing competitive advantage through a global strategy. In M. E. Porter (Ed.), On competition (pp. 309–350). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  104. Porter, M. E., & Stern, S. (2001). Innovation: Location matters. Sloan Management Review, 42(4), 28–36.Google Scholar
  105. Powell, W. W., Koput, K., & Smith-Doerr, L. (1996). Interorganizational collaboration and the locus of innovation: Networks of learning in biotechnology. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(1), 116–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rothaermel, F. T., & Deeds, D. L. (2004). Exploration and exploitation alliances in biotechnology: A system of new product development. Strategic Management Journal, 25(3), 201–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Schilling, M. A., & Phelps, C. C. (2007). Interfirm collaboration networks: The impact of large-scale network structure on firm innovation. Management Science, 53(7), 1113–1126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sharma, S., Mukherjee, S., Kumar, A., & Dillon, W. R. (2005). A simulation study to investigate the use of cutoff values for assessing model fit in covariance structure models. Journal of Business Research, 58(1), 935–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sheng, S., Zhou, K. Z., & Li, J. (2011). The effects of business and political ties on firm performance: Evidence from China. Journal of Marketing, 75(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Singh, J. (2007). Asymmetry of knowledge spillovers between MNCs and host country firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 38(5), 764–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Singh, J., & Agrawal, A. (2011). Recruiting for ideas: How firms exploit the prior inventions of new hires. Management Science, 7(1), 129–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Singh, J., & Fleming, L. (2010). Lone inventors as sources of breakthroughs: Myth or reality? Management Science, 56(1), 41–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Song, J., Almeida, P., & Wu, G. (2003). Learning-by-hiring: When is mobility more likely to facilitate interfirm knowledge transfer? Management Science, 49(4), 351–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Spencer, J. W. (2008). The impact of multinational enterprise strategy on indigenous enterprises: Horizontal spillovers and crowding out in developing countries. Academy of Management Review, 33(2), 341–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Steiger, J. H. (2007). Understanding the limitations of global fit assessment in structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(5), 893–898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Teece, D. (1980). The diffusion of an administrative innovation. Management Science, 26(5), 464–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Teece, D. (1982). Towards an economic theory of the multiproduct firm. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 3(1), 38–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. The Economist (2011). Tata Sauce: A new kind of global company in on the rise: Diversified multinationals from emerging markets. The Economist, March 3.Google Scholar
  120. Tian, X. (2007). Accounting for sources of FDI technology spillovers: Evidence from China. Journal of International Business Studies, 38(1), 147–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Tourangeau, R., Rips, L. J., & Rasinski, K. (2000). The psychology of survey response. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Turban, D. B., Lau, C. M., Ngo, H. Y., Chow, H. I. S., & Si, S. X. (2001). Organizational attractiveness of firms in the People’s Republic of China: A person-organization fit perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(2), 194–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. UNCTAD. (2005). World investment report. New York and Geneva: UNCTAD.Google Scholar
  124. Vaccaro, I. G., Jansen, J. J. P., van den Bosch, F. A. J., & Volberda, H. W. (2012). Management innovation and leadership: The moderating role of organizational size. Journal of Management Studies, 49(1), 28–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Verhoef, P. C., & Leeflang, P. S. H. (2009). Understanding marketing department’s influence within the firm. Journal of Marketing, 73(2), 14–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Walker, R. M., Damanpour, F., & Devece, C. A. (2011). Management innovation and organizational performance: The mediating effect of performance management. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 21(2), 367–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wheaton, B., Muthen, B., Alwin, D. F., & Summers, G. (1977). Assessing reliability and stability in panel models. Sociological Methodology, 8(1), 84–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Wooster, R. B., & Diebel, D. S. (2010). Productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment indeveloping countries: A meta-Regression Analysis. Review of Development Economics, 14(3), 640–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Zahra, A. S., & George, G. (2002). Absorptive capacity: A review, re-conceptualization, and extension. Academy of Management Review, 27(2), 185–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zander, U., & Kogut, B. (1995). Knowledge and the speed of the transfer and imitation of organizational capabilities: An empirical test. Organization Science, 6(1), 76–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zeng, M., & Williamson, P. (2003). The hidden dragons. Harvard Business Review, October, 92–99.Google Scholar
  132. Zhao, H. (2015). Are social ties always valuable to knowledge search? Contextualizing knowledge search by foreign subsidiary executives in an emerging economy. Management International Review, 55(4), 511–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Zhou, K., Yim, K., & Tse, D. (2005). The effects of strategic orientations on technology- and market-based breakthrough innovations. Journal of Marketing, 69(2), 42–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Boeing Institute of International Business, Richard A. Chaifetz School of BusinessSaint Louis UniversitySt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.College of BusinessCity University of Hong KongKowloonHong Kong
  3. 3.School of Business Administration and EconomicsState University of New York at BrockportBrockportUSA

Personalised recommendations