Management International Review

, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp 341–363 | Cite as

Response Style Differences in Cross-National Research

Dispositional and Situational Determinants
  • Anne-Wil Harzing
  • Michelle Brown
  • Kathrin Köster
  • Shuming Zhao
Research Article


  • International Management researchers often rely on surveys to collect their data. However, responses to survey questions can be biased by response styles, a respondent’s tendency to provide a systematic response to questions regardless of their content. Response styles vary across countries and individuals, but there is limited systematic research that investigateswhy they vary.

  • Our study investigates middle (MRS) versus extreme response styles (ERS), the tendency to use the middle or extreme categories on rating scales. We examine the impact of culture, different types of scale anchors and the level of knowledge of the topic in question on MRS and ERS.

  • We asked five groups of respondents (Chinese in China, Chinese in Australia, Anglo-Australians in Australia, and two groups of German students in Germany) to indicate on a 10-point scale whether certain employee attitudes or behaviour were more typically Australian (left-hand of the scale) or Chinese (right-hand of the scale). We then asked them how they would rate the performance (low to high on a 10-point scale) of an employee who displayed this attitude or behaviour.

  • Asian respondents showed higher MRS than Western respondents. When scale anchors referred to naturally opposing and mutually exclusive constructs (Australian versus Chinese) respondents showed more ERS than when they referred to level or degree of a construct (low-high performance). Knowledge of cross national differences resulted in higher ERS on behavioural questions but not on performance questions.


Response styles Survey research Culture China Australia Germany 



This research was supported under Australian Research Council’s Discovery Projects funding scheme (project DP0555977). The views expressed herein are those of the authors and are not necessarily those of the Australian Research Council. This paper was also partly supported by the Key Project by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project No.: 70732002).


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Copyright information

© Gabler Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne-Wil Harzing
    • 1
  • Michelle Brown
    • 1
  • Kathrin Köster
    • 2
  • Shuming Zhao
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Management & MarketingUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Business Administration IIHeilbronn UniversityHeilbronnGermany
  3. 3.School of BusinessNanjing UniversityNanjingChina

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