Management International Review

, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 349–368 | Cite as

The internationalization-performance relationship at Swiss firms: A test of the S-shape and extreme degrees of internationalization

  • Winfried Ruigrok
  • Wolfgang Amann
  • Hardy Wagner


Abstract and Key Results
  • Researchers have recently suggested that on average the relationship between internationalization and performance will be S-shaped. In this study, we test this pattern investigating 87 Swiss multinational companies in manufacturing industries over an 8-year period (1998–2005; N = 696).

  • Large Swiss companies cover the full range of internationalization, with many measuring over 90 percent foreign sales-to-total sales. This allows for a unique test of performance levels at very high degrees of internationalization.

  • We find that in the case of Swiss MNCs the S-curve is shifted to the right, and preceded by an initial stage of increasing performance.

  • We find that companies operating at extreme (very high) degrees of internationalization face lower average performance and higher average performance variation.

Key Words

Internationalization Performance Switzerland Extreme Degrees of Internationalization 


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Copyright information

© Gabler Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Winfried Ruigrok
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Amann
    • 2
  • Hardy Wagner
    • 3
  1. 1.International Management and Director of the Research Institute for International ManagementUniversity of St. GallenSt. GallenSwitzerland
  2. 2.Strategic Direction and International BusinessHenley Management CollegeHenley-on-ThamesUK
  3. 3.Research Institute for International ManagementUniversity of St. GallenSt. GallenSwitzerland

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