Influence of pharmacological and epigenetic factors to suppress neurotrophic factors and enhance neural plasticity in stress and mood disorders

  • Shashikanta Tarai
  • Rupsha Mukherjee
  • Sharda Gupta
  • Albert A. Rizvanov
  • Andras Palotás
  • V. S. Chandrasekhar Pammi
  • Arindam BitEmail author
Review Paper


Stress-induced major depression and mood disorders are characterized by behavioural abnormalities and psychiatric illness, leading to disability and immature mortality worldwide. Neurobiological mechanisms of stress and mood disorders are discussed considering recent findings, and challenges to enhance pharmacological effects of antidepressant, and mood stabilizers. Pharmacological enhancement of ketamine and scopolamine regulates depression at the molecular level, increasing synaptic plasticity in prefrontal regions. Blood-derived neurotrophic factors facilitate mood-deficit symptoms. Epigenetic factors maintain stress-resilience in hippocampal region. Regulation of neurotrophic factors blockades stress, and enhances neuronal survival though it paralyzes limbic regions. Molecular agents and neurotrophic factors also control behavioral and synaptic plasticity in addiction and stress disorders. Future research on neuronal dynamics and cellular actions can be directed to obtain the etiology of synaptic dysregulation in mood disorder and stress. For the first time, the current review contributes to the literature of synaptic plasticity representing the role of epigenetic mechanisms and glucocorticoid receptors to predict depression and anxiety in clinical conditions.


Neural plasticity Mood disorder Ketamines Chronic stress Neurotrophic factor Epigenetic 



AAR, AB and AP were supported by Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University and subsidy allocated to Kazan Federal University for the state assignment in the sphere of scientific activities.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shashikanta Tarai
    • 2
  • Rupsha Mukherjee
    • 1
  • Sharda Gupta
    • 1
  • Albert A. Rizvanov
    • 3
  • Andras Palotás
    • 3
    • 4
  • V. S. Chandrasekhar Pammi
    • 5
  • Arindam Bit
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyRaipurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Humanities and Social ScienceNational Institute of TechnologyRaipurIndia
  3. 3.Institute of Fundamental Medicine and BiologyKazan Federal UniversityKazanRussia
  4. 4.Asklepios-Med (Private Medical Practice and Research Center)SzegedHungary
  5. 5.Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive SciencesUniversity of AllahabadAllahabadIndia

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