Advertisement

Cognitive Neurodynamics

, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 327–340 | Cite as

Topography, independent component analysis and dipole source analysis of movement related potentials

  • Susan PockettEmail author
  • Simon Whalen
  • Alexander V. H. McPhail
  • Walter J. Freeman
Research Article

Abstract

The objective of this study was to test, in single subjects, the hypothesis that the signs of voluntary movement-related neural activity would first appear in the prefrontal region, then move to both the medial frontal and posterior parietal regions, progress to the medial primary motor area, lateralize to the contralateral primary motor area and finally involve the cerebellum (where feedback-initiated error signals are computed). Six subjects performed voluntary finger movements while DC coupled EEG was recorded from 64 scalp electrodes. Event-related potentials (ERPs) averaged on the movements were analysed both before and after independent component analysis (ICA) combined with dipole source analysis (DSA) of the independent components. Both a simple topographic analysis of undecomposed ERPs and the ICA/DSA analysis suggested that the original hypothesis was inadequate. The major departure from its predictions was that, while activity over many brain regions did appear at the expected times, it also appeared at unexpected times. Overall, the results suggest that the neuroscientific ‘standard model’, in which neural activity occurs sequentially in a series of discrete local areas each specialized for a particular function, may reflect the true situation less well than models in which large areas of brain shift simultaneously into and out of common activity states.

Keywords

Bereitschaftspotential Readiness Potential Motor Related Cortical Potential Independent Component Analysis Dipole Source Analysis Scale-free Small-world 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thanks to Professor Robert T. Knight for access to hardware, Clay Clayworth for help setting it up and Christina Karns for assistance with stimulus software. Thanks also to Associate Professor Gary Bold for support during the analysis phase of the project.

Supplementary material

References

  1. Andersen RA, Buneo CA (2002) Intentional maps in posterior parietal cortex. Ann Rev Neurosci 25:189–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bak P, Tang C, Wiesenfeld K (1987) Self-organized criticality: an explanation of 1/f noise. Phys Rev Lett 59:381–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bassett DS, Bullmore E (2006) Small-world brain networks. Neuroscientist 12:512–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bassett DS, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Achard S et al (2006) Adaptive reconfiguration of fractal small-world human brain functional networks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:19518–19523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bechara A, Damasio H, Tranel D, Anderson S (1998) Dissociation of working memory from decision making within human prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci 18:428–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell AJ, Sejnowsky TJ (1995) An information-maximization approach to blind separation and blind deconvolution. Neural Comp 7:1129–1159Google Scholar
  7. Binkofski F, Dohle C, Posse S et al (1998) Human anterior intraparietal area subserves prehension: a combined lesion and functional MRI activation study. Neurology 50:1253–1259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brunia CHM, Boxtel GJM (2001) Wait and see. Int J Psychophys 43:59–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen JD, Perlstein WM, Braver TS et al (1997) Temporal dynamics of brain activation during a working memory task. Nature 386:604–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Courtney SM, Ungerleider LG, Keil K, Haxby JV (1996) Object and spatial visual working memory activate separate neural systems in human cortex. Cereb Cort 6:39–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Courtney SM, Ungerleider LG, Keil K, Haxby JV (1997) Transient and sustained activity in a distributed neural system for human working memory. Nature 386:608–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cui RQ, Huter D, Lang W, Deecke L (1999) Neuroimage of voluntary movement: topography of the Bereitschaftspotential, a 64-channel DC current source density study. Neuroimage 9:124–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cui RQ, Huter D, Egkher A et al (2000) High-resolution DC-EEG mapping of the Bereitschaftspotential preceding simple or complex bimanual sequential finger movement. Exp Brain Res 134:49–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cunnington R, Windischberger C, Deecke L, Moser E (2002) The preparation and execution of self-initiated and externally-triggered movement: a study of event-related fMRI. Neuroimage 15:373–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. D’Esposito M, Detre JA, Alsop DC et al (1995) The neural basis of central execution systems of working memory. Nature 378:279–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Damasio AR, Tranel D, Damasio H (1991) Somatic markers and the guidance of behavior: theory and preliminary testing. In: Levin HS, Eisenberg HM, Benton AL (eds) Frontal lobe function and dysfunction. Oxford UP, New York, pp 217–229Google Scholar
  17. Deecke L, Scheid P, Kornhuber HH (1969) Distribution of readiness potential, premotion positivity and motor potentials of the human cerebral cortex preceeding voluntary finger movements. Exp Brain Res 7:158–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Deecke L, Grozinger B, Kornhuber HH (1976) Voluntary finger movement in man: cerebral potentials and theory. Biol Cybernet 23:99–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Delorme A, Makeig S (2004) EEGLAB: an open source toolbox for analysis of single-trial EEG dynamics. J Neurosci Meth 134:9–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eskandar EN, Assad JA (1999) Dissociation of visual, motor and predictive signals in parietal cortex during visual guidance. Nat Neurosci 2:88–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Freeman WJ (2004) Origin, structure, and role of background EEG activity. Part 2. Analytic phase. Clin Neurophys 115:2089–2107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Freeman WJ (2007) Scale-free neocortical dynamics. Scholarpedia pp 8780Google Scholar
  23. Freeman WJ, Burke BC (2003) A neurobiological theory of meaning in perception. Part 4. Multicortical patterns of amplitude modulation in gamma EEG. Int J Bifurc Chaos 13:2857–2866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Freeman WJ, Burke BC, Holmes MD (2003a) Aperiodic phase re-setting in scalp EEG of beta-gamma oscillations by state transitions at alpha-theta rates. Hum Brain Map 19(4):248–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Freeman WJ, Gaál G, Jornten R (2003b) A neurobiological theory of meaning in perception. Part 3. Multiple cortical areas synchronize without loss of local autonomy. Int J Bifurc Chaos 13:2845–2856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Freeman WJ, Rogers LJ (2003) A neurobiological theory of meaning in perception. Part 5. Multicortical patterns of phase modulation in gamma EEG. Int J Bifurc Chaos 13:2867–2887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Freeman WJ, Rogers LJ, Holmes MD, Silbergeld DL (2000) Spatial spectral analysis of human electrocorticograms including the alpha and gamma bands. J Neurosci Methods 95:111–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goldman-Rakic PS (1992) Working memory and the mind. Sci Am 267(3):111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hilgetag CC, Burns GAPC, O’Neill MA, Scannell JW (2000) Anatomical connectivity defines the organization of clusters of cortical areas in the macaque and the cat. Phil Trans Roy Soc B 273:503–511Google Scholar
  30. Jahanshahi M, Frith CD (1998) Willed action and its impairments. Cogn Neuropsychol 15(6–8):483–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jensen HJ (1998) Self-organized criticality: emergent behavior in physical and biological systems. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  32. Jonides J, Smith EE, Koeppe RA et al (1993) Spatial working memory in humans as revealed by PET. Nature 363:623–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kalaska JF (1996) Parietal cortex area 5 and visuomotor behavior. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 74:483–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kornhuber HH, Deecke L (1964) Hirnpotentialänderungen beim Menschen vor und nach Willkürbewegungen, dargestellt mit Magnetbandspeicherung und Rückwärtsanalyse. Pflügers Arch ges Physiol 281:52Google Scholar
  35. Lau HC, Rogers RD, Haggard P, Passingham RE (2004) Attention to intention. Science 303:1208–1210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Makeig S et al (2002) Frequently asked questions about ICA applied to EEG and MEG data. WWW Site, Swartz Center for Computational Neuroscience, Institute for Neural Computation, University of California San Diego, http://sccn.ucsd.edu/%7Escott/tutorial/icafaq.html
  37. McCarthy G, Blamire AM, Puce A et al (1994) Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human prefrontal cortex activation during a spatial working memory task. Proc Natl Acad Sci 91:8690–8694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Paradiso G, Cunic D, Saint-Cyr JA et al (2004) Involvement of human thalamus in the preparation of self-paced movement. Brain 127:2717–2731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pedersen JR, Johannsen P, Bak CK et al (1998) Origin of human motor readiness field linked to left middle frontal guyrus by MEG and PET. Neuroimage 8:214–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Perenin MT, Vighetto A (1988) Optic ataxia: a specific disruption in visuomotor mechanisms. I. Different aspects of the deficit in reaching for objects. Brain 111:643–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Petrides M, Alivisatos B, Evans AC, Meyer E (1993) Dissociation of human mid-dorsolateral from posterior dorsolateral frontal cortex in memory processing. Proc Natl Acad Sci 90:873–877PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pockett S (2006) The neuroscience of movement. In: Pockett S, Banks WP, Gallagher S (eds) Does consciousness cause behavior? MIT Press, Cambridge MassGoogle Scholar
  43. Praamstra P, Schmitz F, Freund H-J, Schnitzler A (1999) Magneto-encephalographic correlates of the lateralized readiness potential. Cogn Brain Res 8:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Quian Quiroga R, Kraskov A, Kreuz T, Grassberger P (2001) Performance of different synchronization measures in real data: a case study on electroencephalographic signals. Phys Rev E 65:041903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sakata H, Taira M, Murata A, Mine S (1995) Neural mechanisms of visual guidance of hand action in the parietal cortex of the monkey. Cereb Cortex 5:429–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sakata H, Taira M, Kusunoki M et al (1997) The TINS lecture. The parietal association cortex in depth perception and visual control of hand action. Trends Neurosci 20:350–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shibasaki H, Barrett G, Halliday E, Halliday AM (1980) Components of the movement-related cortical potential and their scalp topography. Electroencephalogr clin Neurophysiol 49:213–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Singh J, Knight RT (1990) Frontal lobe contribution to voluntary movements in humans. Brain Res 531:45–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Smith EE, Jonides J, Koeppe RA et al (1995) Spatial versus object working memory: PET investigations. J Cog Neurosci 7:337–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Strogatz SH (2001) Exploring complex networks. Nature 410:268–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Toro C, Matsumoto J, Deuschl G et al (1993) Source analysis of scalp-recorded movement-related electrical potentials. Electroencephalogr clin Neurophysiol 86:167–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Varela F., Lachaux J-P, Rodriguez E, Martinerie J (2001) The brainweb: phase synchronization and large-scale integration. Nature Rev Neurosci 2:229–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Watts DJ, Strogatz SH (1998) Collective dynamics of ‘small-world’ networks. Nature 393:440–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan Pockett
    • 1
    Email author
  • Simon Whalen
    • 1
  • Alexander V. H. McPhail
    • 1
  • Walter J. Freeman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Department of Molecular and Cellular BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations