, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 77–83 | Cite as

Nanomaterials and Effects on Biological Systems: Development of Effective Regulatory Norms

  • Padmavati Manchikanti
  • Tapas K. Bandopadhyay
Critical Discussion Notes


Nanoscience has enabled the understanding of organisation of the atomic and molecular world. Due to the unique chemical, electronic and magnetic properties nanomaterials have wide applications in the chemical, manufacturing, medical sector etc., Single walled carbon nanotubes, buckyballs, ZnSe quantum dots, TiO2 nanoparticle based products are nearing commercialisation. Research is on-going worldwide on suitable delivery systems for nanomaterial based drugs. Nanomaterials are highly reactive in biological systems due to the large surface area. While the benefits of nanomaterials are evident there are studies which indicate the potential risk to biological systems. Substances known to be harmless in bulk can be potentially toxic in certain fibrous and nanoparticle form. Risk assessment studies with nanomaterials largely focus on mouse models. There are very few studies on their effects on aquatic species and plants which form the largest in the productivity chain with respect to the ecological pyramid. This study reviews the research done worldwide in the area of risk assessment of nanomaterials, particularly the effects on aquatic and plant systems. Risk assessment is the foundation for regulatory decision making. A general comparison of the regulatory regime in nanotechnology is performed to understand the extent of development.


Nanomaterials Plants Aquatic Regulation Nanotechnology Regulatory norms 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rajiv Gandhi School of Intellectual Property lawIIT KharagpurKharagpurIndia

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