Advertisement

Contemporary Islam

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 133–152 | Cite as

Hating the Ahmadiyya: the place of “heretics” in contemporary Indonesian Muslim society

  • Ahmad Najib Burhani
Article

Abstract

Religious diversity and pluralism is commonly understood within the context of the relation between various religious traditions, not within a single religious tradition. This limitation of the boundary of religious pluralism could overlook the fact that conflict within a single tradition can be bitterer and more disastrous than conflict with other religions. In the last decade, for instance, the Ahmadis in Indonesia have become victims of constant attacks. This article, therefore, intends to study the place of the Ahmadiyya in the context of religious pluralism in Indonesia by answering the following questions: Why was the treatment of the Ahmadis in recent years by Muslims more vitriolic than their treatment of non-Muslims? What is the nature and quality of life for people who have been excluded from a ‘normal’ religious identity in a time when religious attachment is a necessary fact for that society? Why did the attacks on the Ahmadiyya occur in the present regime, not during the past authoritarian one? This article argues that the charge of heresy issued by Muslim institutions put the Ahmadiyya in liminal status; they are in the zone of indistinction between Muslims and non-Muslims. This makes them vulnerable to persecution since they have been deprived of their rights as Muslims, while their rights as non-Muslims are still suspended. Non-Muslims, particularly ahl al-kitāb (People of the Book), have been accepted theologically in Muslim society, but there is no place of tolerance for heretics. The rise of intolerance in Indonesia parallels the rise of religious conservatism after the fall of Suharto in 1998.

Keywords

Homo sacer Liminality Heresy Persecution Religious identity Ahmadiyya 

References

  1. Agamben, G. (1998). Homo sacer. Sovereign power and bare life. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad, A. A. (2009). Islam, modernity, violence, and everyday life. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. al-Ghazālī, A. Ḥ. (1993). Fayṣal al-tafriqa bayn al-Islām wa al-zandaqa (the criterion of distinction between Islam and zandaqa). Damascus: M. Bejou.Google Scholar
  4. Ali, A. M. (1957). The Muhammadijah movement: A bibliographical introduction. MA Thesis, McGill University.Google Scholar
  5. Ali, S. (2006). Tragedi Ahmadiyah NTB pasca 1998. Mataram: Ahmadiyah Nusa Tenggara Barat.Google Scholar
  6. Bagir, Z. A. (2011). Telaah kasus Ahmadiyah di Indonesia. Yogyakarta: CRCS-UGM Yogyakarta.Google Scholar
  7. Bagir, Z. A., et al. (2012). Laporan tahunan kehidupan beragama di Indonesia 2011. Yogyakarta: CRCS Gadjah Mada University.Google Scholar
  8. Bertrand, J. (2004). Nationalism and ethnic conflict in Indonesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Boeke, R., & Wynne-Jones, P. (2011). Servetus: Our 16th century contemporary: A brief introduction to the life and teachings of Michael Servetus, a pioneer of religious freedom. London: International Association for Religious Freedom.Google Scholar
  10. Burhani, A. N. (2011). Lakum dinukum wa-liya dini: The Muhammadiya's stance towards interfaith relations. Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 22(3), 329–342. Google Scholar
  11. Burhani, A. N. (2013). Treating minorities with fatwas: A study of the Ahmadiya community in Indonesia. Contemporary Islam. doi:  10.1007/s11562-013-0278-3.
  12. Desastian. (2011). Keppres pembubaran Ahmadiyah tidak melanggar HAM. Voice of al-Islam, Wednesday, 2 March. http://www.voaislam.com/news/indonesiana/2011/03/02/13560/keppres-pembubaranahmadiyah-tidak-melanggar-ham/. Accessed 13 January 2012.
  13. Coser, L. A. (1964). The functions of social conflict. Glencoe: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  14. Crimi, F. (2011). Cleansing Indonesia. Frontpagemag.com, 25 August. http://frontpagemag.com/2011/08/25/cleansing-indonesia/. Accessed 2 June 2012.
  15. Desastian. (2011). Keppres pembubaran Ahmadiyah tidak melanggar HAM. Voice of al-Islam, Wednesday, 2 March. http://www.voaislam.com/news/indonesiana/2011/03/02/13560/keppres-pembubaranahmadiyah-tidak-melanggar-ham/. Accessed 13 January 2012.
  16. Djamaluddin, M. A. (2008). Ahmadiyah & pembajakan al-Qur’an. Jakarta: Lembaga Penelitian & Pengkajian Islam.Google Scholar
  17. Djamaluddin, M. A. (2011). Ahmadiyah menodai Islam: Kumpulan fakta dan data. Jakarta: Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengkajian Islam.Google Scholar
  18. Djunaidy, M. (2010). Ahmadiyah sebaiknya menjadi agama sendiri. Tempo Interaktif, Wednesday, September 1. http://www.tempo.co/read/news/2010/09/01/063275735/Ahmadiyah-Sebaiknya-Menjadi-Agama-Sendiri. Accessed 13 January 2012.
  19. Drummond, W. H. (1848). The life of Michael Servetus: The Spanish physician, who, for the alleged crime of heresy, was entrapped, imprisoned, and burned by John Calvin the reformer, in the city of Geneva, October 27, 1553. London: Chapman.Google Scholar
  20. Durkheim, E., [1912] (1995). The elementary forms of religious life. Translated by K.E. Fields. New York: FreeGoogle Scholar
  21. Durantaye, L. D. (2009). Giorgio Agamben: A critical introduction. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. El Shamsy, A. (2008). The social construction of orthodoxy. In T. J. Winter (Ed.), The Cambridge companion to classical Islamic theology (pp. 97–117). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Erikson, K. T. (1966). Wayward Puritans: A study in the sociology of deviance. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  24. Fitri. 2012. Trapped in a legal limbo, Indonesia’s Ahmadis look for a home. The Jakarta Globe, 29 February. http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/home/trappedin-a-legal-limbo-indonesias-ahmadis-look-for-a-home/501333. Accessed 29 May 2012.
  25. Freud, S. [1919] (2009). Totem and taboo. Translated by A.A. Brill. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Gualtieri, A. R. (1989). Conscience and coercion: Ahmadi muslims and orthodoxy in Islam. Montreal: Guernica.Google Scholar
  27. Gualtieri, A. R. (2004). The Ahmadis: Community, gender, and politics in a Muslim society. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Hasani, I. (Ed.). (2009). Berpihak dan bertindak intoleran: Intoleransi masyarakat dan restriksi negara dalam kebebasan beragama/berkeyakinan di Indonesia. Jakarta: Publikasi Setara Institute.Google Scholar
  29. Hasani, I., & Naipospos, B.T., (Eds.). (2011). Politik diskriminasi rezim Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono: Kondisi kebebasan beragama/berkeyakinan di Indonesia 2011. Jakarta: Pustaka Masyarakat SetaraGoogle Scholar
  30. ICG (International Crisis Group). (2008). Indonesia: Implications of the Ahmadiyah Decree. Jakarta/Brussels: International Crisis Group.Google Scholar
  31. Iqbal, M. (1974). Islam and Ahmadism. Lucknow: Academy of Islamic Research and Publications.Google Scholar
  32. Jones, G. N. (1986). The Ahmadis of Islam: A Mormon encounter and perspective. Dialogue, a Journal of Mormon Thought, 19(2), 39–54.Google Scholar
  33. Karmini, N. (2011). No shame for religious killings in Indonesian town. The Jakarta Globe, 9 August. http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/home/no-shame-for-religious-killings-in-indonesian-town/458163. Accessed 31 May 2012.
  34. Klinken, G. v. (2007). Communal violence and democratization in Indonesia: Small town wars. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Komnas HAM. (2011). Laporan tim penyelidikan pelanggaran hak asasi manusia yang serius atas Jemaah Ahmadiyah Indonesia. Jakarta: Komisi Nasional Hak Asasi Manusia.Google Scholar
  36. Kontras. (2011). Negara tak kunjung terusik: Laporan hak asasi manusia peristiwa penyerangan Jama’ah Ahmadiyah Cikeusik 6 Februari 2011. Jakarta: Kontras.Google Scholar
  37. Kriesi, H. (2004). Political context and opportunity. In D. A. Snow, S. A. Soule, & H. Kriesi (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to social movement (pp. 67–90). Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  38. Kurtz, L. R. (1983). The politics of heresy. American Journal of Sociology, 88(6), 1085–1115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lazuardi, A. (2011). Hasyim Muzadi: Ahmadiyah tak bisa jadi problem lintas agama. Detiknews, Wednesday, 23 March. http://us.detiknews.com/read/2011/03/23/192101/1599858/10/hasyim-mu. Accessed 13 January 2012.
  40. Mahendra, Y. I. (2008a). SKB tentang Ahmadiyah. yusril.ihzamahendra.com, 9 May. http://yusril.ihzamahendra.com/2008/05/09/skb-tentang-ahmadiyah. Accessed 11 February 2012.
  41. Mahendra, Y. I. (2008b). Sekali lagi SKB tentang Ahmadiyah. yusril.ihzamahendra.com, 11 June. http://yusril.ihzamahendra.com/2008/06/11/sekali-lagi-tentang-skb-ahmadiyah/. Accessed 11 February 2012.
  42. Maḥmūd Aḥmad, B. (1924). Ahmadiyyat; or the true Islam. Qadian: Talif-o-Isha’at.Google Scholar
  43. Mudzakkir, A. (2007). Menjadi minoritas di tengah perubahan: Dinamika komunitas Ahmadiyah di Ciparay. In M. Noorsalim, M. Nurkhoiron, & R. Al-Makassary (Eds.), Hak minoritas: Multikulturalisme dan dilema negara bangsa (pp. 195–235). Lenteng Agung: Interseksi Foundation.Google Scholar
  44. MUI (Majelis Ulama Indonesia). (2009). Mengawal aqidah umat:Fatwa MUI tentang aliran-aliran sesat di Indonesia. Jakarta: Sekretariat Majelis Ulama Indonesia.Google Scholar
  45. Mujiyanto. (2011). Bisul Ahmadiyah. Media Umat, 53, 18 February–3 March, p. 4. http://mediaumat.com/media-utama/2415-bisul-ahmadiyah.html. Accessed 31 May 2012.
  46. Muzadi, H. (2011). Ahmadiyah sebaiknya jadi agama sendiri. Gatra, 8 February. http://arsip.gatra.com/2011-02-08/artikel.php?id=145338. Accessed 13 January 2012.
  47. Nisa’, N. (2011). Vonis ringan untuk tragedi Cikeusik. The Wahid Institute, Monthly Report on Religious Issues, No. XXXV, August, 2–3.Google Scholar
  48. Noer, D. (1973). The modernist Muslim movement in Indonesia, 1900–1942. Singapore: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Noori, A. A. Y. (1981). Finality of prophethood and a critical analysis of Babism, Bahaism, Qadiyanism = Khātamīyyat payāmbar islam wa ibṭāl taḥlīlī bābīgarī, baḥāyīgarī, qādīyānīgarī. Teheran: Madresa-e-Shohada.Google Scholar
  50. Ramadhan, S. (2010). Amin Djamaludin: Biasa, PKS memang begitu. Suara Islam Online, Sunday, 10 October, 2010. http://www.suara-islam.com/news/berita/nasional/1256-amin-djamaludin-biasa-pks-memang-begitu. Accessed 12 July 2011.
  51. Salam, F. (2011). Dua karib dari muara baru. Indoprogress, 17 March. http://indoprogress.com/2011/03/17/dua-karib-dari-muara-baru/. Accessed 27 April 2012.
  52. Setara Institute. (2010). Atas nama ketertiban dan keamanan: Persekusi Ahmadiyah di Bogor, Garut, Tasikmalaya, dan Kuningan. Jakarta: Setara Institute.Google Scholar
  53. Simmel, G. (1964). Conflict & the web of group-affiliations (transl. Kurt H. Wolff and Reinhard Bendix). New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  54. Tajima, Y. (2010). Explaining ethnic violence in Indonesia: Demilitarizing demostic security. In A. Varshney (Ed.), Collective violence in Indonesia (pp. 99–117). Colorado: Rienner.Google Scholar
  55. Valentine, S. R. (2008). Islam and the Ahmadiyya jama’at: History, belief, practice. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Virdhani, M. H. (2010). Calon wali kota ditantang bikin SK larang Ahmadiyah. Okezone.com, Monday, 9 August, 2010. http://news.okezone.com/read/2010/08/08/338/360905/calon-wali-kota-ditantang-bikin-sk-larang-ahmadiyah. Accessed 12 July 2011.
  57. Wahid Institute. (2011). Lampu merah kebebasan beragama: Laporan kebebasan beragama dan toleransi di Indonesia 2011. Jakarta: The Wahid Institute.Google Scholar
  58. Wijaya, A. K. (2011). Kronologi pembongkaran makam jemaah Ahmadiyah Bandung. Tempo Interaktif, Friday, 4 March. http://www.tempo.co/read/news/2011/03/04/173317702/Kronologi-Pembongkaran-Makam-Jemaah-Ahmadiyah-Bandung. Accessed 3 June 2012.
  59. Zirvi, K. (2010). Welcome to Ahmadiyyat, the true Islam. Silver Spring: Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam, USA.Google Scholar
  60. Zito, G. V. (1983). Toward a sociology of heresy. Sociological Analysis, 44(2), 123–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)JakartaIndonesia
  2. 2.TangselIndonesia

Personalised recommendations