Do human rights violations hinder counterterrorism cooperation? Evidence from the FBI’s deployment abroad
- 537 Downloads
The impact of human rights on counterterrorism cooperation has been the subject of speculation, but not of systematic analysis. This study offers such an analysis by examining an important channel of cooperation against terrorism: international police liaisons, such as the FBI agents deployed worldwide. It is hypothesized that police liaisons are less likely to be sent to countries where human rights violations are widespread, since repressive governments see threat in foreign agents stationed on their territory. Survival analysis finds support for this hypothesis. An FBI presence does not require democratic government or a strong rule of law in the host country; but human rights abuse reduces the likelihood of an FBI deployment. These findings substantiate a link between human rights and counterterrorism cooperation, offering insights for the study of cross-border law enforcement and transgovernmental networks.
KeywordsTerrorism Counterterrorism Crime Law enforcement Police Human rights FBI International cooperation Transgovernmental networks
JEL ClassificationsF52 F55
I thank Amnon Cavari, Anna Getmansky, Eliav Lieblich, Barak Mendelsohn, Assaf Moghadam, Alex Quiroz Flores, Doug Stinnett, the editor of RIO, and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments and advice. Guy Freedman, Einat Gedalya, Yotam Kreiman, and Tal Tzurel provided research assistance.
- Aldrich, R. J. (2009). US-European intelligence co-operation on counter-terrorism: Low politics and compulsion. British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 11(1), 122–139.Google Scholar
- Andreas, P., & Nadelmann, E. (2006). Policing the globe: Criminalization and crime control in international relations. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Axelrod, R. (1984). The evolution of cooperation. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Aydinli, E., & Yön, H. (2011). Transgovernmentalism meets security: Police liasion officers, terrorism, and statist transnationalism. Governance, 24(1), 55–84.Google Scholar
- Bach, D., & Newman A. L. (2014). Domestic Drivers of Transgovernmental Regulatory Cooperation. Regulation and Governance. doi: 10.1111/rego.12047.
- Bättig, M. B., & Bernauer, T. (2009). National institutions and global public goods: Are democracies more cooperative in climate change policy? International Organization, 63(2), 281–308.Google Scholar
- Bayer, M. D. (2010). The blue planet: Informal international police networks and national intelligence. Washington: National Defense Intelligence College.Google Scholar
- Cingranelli, D. L., Richards, D. L., & Clay, C. (2013). The Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Dataset. Retrieved from the CIRI Human Rights Dataset website at: http://www.humanrightsdata.org.
- Deflem, M. (2002). Policing world society: Historical foundations of international police cooperation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Deutsche Welle. (2010). Europeans still resisting Obama over Guantanamo inmates. February 17.Google Scholar
- Elder, M. (2013). Russia Raids Offices of Amnesty International and Other Human Rights Groups. The Guardian, March 28.Google Scholar
- FATF (Financial Action Task Force). (2008). Terrorist Financing. Paris. February 29.Google Scholar
- FBI. (2004). The FBI’s Counterterrorism Program Since September 2001. Report to the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. April 14.Google Scholar
- Findley, M. G., & Young, J. K. (2011). Terrorism, democracy, and credible commitments. International Studies Quarterly, 55(2), 357–378.Google Scholar
- Gardeazabal, J., & Sandler, T. (2014). INTERPOL’s Surveillance Network in Curbing Transnational Terrorism. Working paper.Google Scholar
- Gibney, M., Cornett, L., & Wood, R. (2013). Political Terror Scale, 1976–2008. Retrieved from the Political Terror Scale website: http://www.politicalterrorscale.org/
- Hafner-Burton, E. M., & Shapiro, J. N. (2010). Tortured relations: Human rights abuses and counterterrorism cooperation. PS: Political Science and Politics, 43(3), 415–419.Google Scholar
- Keck, M. E., & Sikkink, K. (1998). Activists beyond borders: Advocacy networks in international politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
- Koschut, S. (2007). Germany and the USA in the War against Terror: Is Extraordinary Rendition Putting Transatlantic Cooperation under Strain? Internationale Politik und Gesellschaft, 3, 36–52.Google Scholar
- Kristof, N. D. (2011). Repressing Democracy, With American Arms. New York Times, December 17.Google Scholar
- Kurrild-Klitgaard, P., Justesen, M. K., & Klemmensen, R. (2006). The political economoy of freedom, democracy and transnational terrorism. Public Choice, 128, 289–315.Google Scholar
- Masse, T., & Krouse, W. (2003). The FBI: Past, Present, and Future. Congressional Research Service. October 2.Google Scholar
- Nadelmann, E. (1993). Cops across borders: The internationalization of U.S. criminal law enforcement. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
- Raustiala, K. (2002). The architecture of international cooperation: Transgovernmental networks and the future of international law. Virginia Journal of International Law, 43, 1–92.Google Scholar
- Regan, P. M., & Henderson, E. A. (2002). Democracy, threats and political repression in developing countries: Are democracies internally less violent? Third World Quarterly, 23(1), 119–136.Google Scholar
- Schmitt, E. & Schmidt M. S. (2013). 2 U.S. Agencies Added Boston Bomb Suspects to Watch Lists. New York Times, April 24.Google Scholar
- Shane, S., & Nixon, R. (2012). Charges Against U.S.-Aided Groups Come With History of Distrust in Egypt. New York Times, February 6.Google Scholar
- Sikkink, K. (2004). Mixed signals: U.S. human rights policy and Latin America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
- Simmons, B. A., & Lloyd, P. (2010). Subjective Frames and Rational Choice: Transnational Crime and the Case of Human Trafficking. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1653473.
- Slaughter, A. M. (2004). A new world order. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Strezhnev, Anton, and Erik Voeten. 2013. United Nations General Assembly Voting Data. http://hdl.handle.net/1902.1/12379.
- The Economist. 2009. The Dark Pursuit of the Truth. July 30.Google Scholar
- Tomz, M. (2007). Reputation and international cooperation: sovereign debt across three centuries. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Justice. (2004). Federal Bureau of Investigation Legal Attaché Program. Audit Report 04–18. March.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Justice. (2007). The Drug Enforcement Administration’s International Operations. Audit Report 07–19. February.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of State. (2012). Treaties in Force: A List of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States in Force on January 1, 2012.Google Scholar
- U.S. Senate. (1996). Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Foreign Operations. Hearing on International Crime. March 12.Google Scholar
- Weiner, T. (2012). Enemies: a history of the FBI. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
- Wilson, M. C., & Piazza, J. A. (2013). Autocracies and Terrorism: Conditioning Effects of Authoritarian Regime Type on Terrorist Attacks. American Journal of Political Science, 57(4), 941–955.Google Scholar