What is cultivated oyster mushroom? Phylogenetic and physiological study of Pleurotus ostreatus and related taxa
The wild and cultivated isolates of Pleurotus ostreatus were the subject of a phylogenetic analysis, AMOVA of DNA sequences, exact test of population differentiation, estimation of evolutionary divergence, and cardinal temperature measurement. Two significantly genetically separated groups (OA and OB) with limited mutual gene flow were revealed. While OA is identical with P. ostreatus sensu stricto and includes mainly wild isolates, OB is a more genetically variable group of cultivated isolates of unclear geographical origin. The delimitation of the two groups is confirmed by three genetic markers (ITS, TEF1 and RPB2). Limited gene flow between those two groups was detected, but this is comparable to the putative gene flow between OA, OB on the one hand and P. eryngii and P. pulmonarius on the other. This gene flow between OA and OB may be caused by artificial breeding activities, but the number of such hybridisation events is limited. The genetic differences are also confirmed by the different growth rates of the two groups. The centre of distribution of P. ostreatus s. s. is in Eurasia, while the origin of the OB group is unknown. The availability of a validly published taxonomic name for OB is discussed.
KeywordsCardinal temperature Evolutionary divergence Hybridisation Taxonomy
The authors would like to express many thanks to those who provided some cultures for this study, firstly to Irmgard Greilhuber and Ronald Petersen for the kind provision of ex-type culture, and to the Culture Collection of Basidimycetes (CCBAS)–Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.
The work was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic, institutional support MZE-RO0418 and project QK1910235 as well as by the European Social Fund and the state budget of the Czech Republic, project Indicators of Trees Vitality, reg. no. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0265.
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