Scolytus multistriatus associated with Dutch elm disease on the island of Gotland: phenology and communities of vectored fungi
- 250 Downloads
Scolytus multistriatus Marsham, the smaller European elm bark beetle, is a vector for Dutch elm disease (DED) that in the year 2005 invaded the island of Gotland (Sweden). The island possesses the largest population of elm (mainly Ulmus minor Mill.) in northern Europe. The aim of this study was to monitor flying periods of S. multistriatus during three consecutive years and by using high-throughput sequencing to assess communities of vectored fungi. Sampling of the beetles was carried out at two different sites in Gotland in 2012, 2013, and 2014. In total, 50 pheromone traps were placed at each site and checked weekly during June-August each year. From all sites and years, 177 beetles were trapped. Among these, 6.2 % were trapped in June, 76.8 % in July, and 16.9 % in August (difference significant at p<0.007). Sequencing of ITS rDNA from the beetles revealed the presence of 1589 fungal taxa, among which virulent DED pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier was the second most common species (9.0 % of all fungal sequences). O. ulmi Buisman, the less virulent DED pathogen, was also detected but only in a single beetle, which was sampled in 2012 (0.04 % of sequences). There were 13.0 % of the beetles infested with O. novo-ulmi in 2012, 4.0 % in 2013, and 27.7 % in 2014. O. novo-ulmi comprised 0.8 % of fungal sequences in 2012, 0.002 % in 2013, and 8.2 % in 2014. The study showed that the proportion of S. multistriatus vectoring O. novo-ulmi has increased in recent years.
KeywordsOphiostoma Invasive pathogens Bark beetles Disease management Fungal community Ulmus
We thank Diem Nguyen at the Dept. of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, SLU, for language revision and Karin Wågström at the Swedish Forest Agency for help with the field work. The financial support is gratefully acknowledged from Foundation Oscar and Lili Lamms Minne, Carl Tryggers Foundation, the Swedish Research Council Formas, and the EU Life+ Nature Elmias (LIFE12 NAT/SE/001139) project.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- Bellows TS, Meisenbacher C, Reardon RC (1998) European elm bark beetle biological control. Paper presented at the Biological control of arthropod forest pests of the western United States: a review and recommendations. USDA Forest Service, FHTET–96–21, The University of Georgia, and Southern Forest Insect Work Conference. Available from http://www.barkbeetles.org/Biocontol/europeanelmbarkbeetle.html Accessed 15 January 2016
- Brasier CM, Buck K, Paoletti M, Crawford L, Kirk S (2004) Molecular analysis of evolutionary changes in populations of Ophiostma novo-ulmi. For Res Syst 13:93–103Google Scholar
- Domsch KH, Gams W, Anderson TH (2007) Compendium of soil fungi. IHW-Verlag, EchingGoogle Scholar
- Houle C, Hartmann GC, Wasti SS (1987) Infectivity of 8 species of entomogenous fungi to the larvae of the elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham). J NY Entomol Soc 95:14–18Google Scholar
- Ihrmark K, Bodeker ITM, Cruz-Martinez K, Friberg H, Kubartova A, Schenck J, Strid Y, Stenlid J, Brandstrom-Durling M, Clemmensen KE, Lindahl BD (2012) New primers to amplify the fungal ITS2 region - evaluation by 454-sequencing of artificial and natural communities. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 82:666–677. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2012.01437.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kirisits T (2013) Dutch Elm Disease and Other Ophiostoma Diseases. In:Gonthier P, Nicolotti G (eds) Infectious Forest Diseases. CABI, pp 256–282Google Scholar
- Lee JC, Aguayo I, Aslin R, Durham G, Hamud SM, Moltzan BD, Munson AS, Negron JF, Peterson T, Ragenovich IR, Witcosky JJ, Seybold SJ (2009) Co-occurrence of the invasive banded and European elm bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America. Ann Entomol Soc Am 102:426–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lim YW, Kim JJ, Lu M, Breuil C (2005) Determining fungal diversity on Dendroctonus ponderosae and Ips pini affecting lodgepole pine using cultural and molecular methods. Fungal Divers 19:79–94Google Scholar
- Östbrant IL, Wågström K, Persson M, Smedberg AL (2009) Holländsk almsjuka. Ophiostoma novo-ulmi i Gotlands län år 2009 Dutch elm disease. Ophiostoma novo-ulmi in county of Gotland year 2009. Länsstyrelsen Gotlands Län, Dnr:640-7109-09 (In Swedish)Google Scholar
- Schlyter F, Anderbrant O, Lindquist G, Jansson A (1987) Dutch elm disease (Ceratocystis ulmi) and elm bark beetles in Malmö town 1985 - distribution, phenology and practical measures in an integrated control program. Vaxtskyddsnotiser 51:2–10Google Scholar
- Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1995) Biometry: the principles and practice of statistics in biological research, 3rd edn. W.H. Freeman and Co, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Vega FE, Blackwell M (2005) Insect-fungal associations: ecology and evolution. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Wang Y-P, Guo R, Deng J-Y, Zhang Z (2014) Field efficacy of combinations of attractants for bark beetles and longicorn beetles in trapping wood-boring beetles. Acta Entomol Sin 56:452–456Google Scholar
- White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) PCR protocols: A guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, Inc, San Diego, pp 315–322Google Scholar
- Wood SL (1982) The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a taxonomic monograph. Great Basin Nat Mem 6:1–359Google Scholar