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Mycological Progress

, 15:26 | Cite as

Clitopilus reticulosporus, a new species with unique spore ornamentation, its phylogenetic affinities and implications on the spore evolution theory

  • Luis N. MorgadoEmail author
  • Machiel E. Noordeloos
  • Anton Hausknecht
Original Article

Abstract

Clitopilus reticulosporus (Entolomataceae, Agaricales) growing on rotting wood is described as a new species based on collections from Austria and Hungary. Multi-gene phylogenetic analysis of ITS, rpb2, LSU and mtSSU confirms the placement of C. reticulosporus in the Clitopilus-Rhodocybe clade in the Entolomataceae. It is nested within the subclade containing the species with clitopiloid spores (Clitopilus s. str.). Scanning electron microscopy studies demonstrate that the spores of this species have a peculiar reticulate ornamentation resembling an intermediate form between the clitopiloid type with longitudinal ribs, and the rhodocyboid type with irregular bumps and ridges. However, our ancestral character reconstruction suggests that (1) this character state is not an intermediate form and (2) the discovery of this new character state does not have a direct implication on the Entolomataceae spore evolution theory. Our phylogenetic reconstruction uncovered, at least, three distinct lineages in the Clitopilus s. str. clade, and suggest that sect. Clitopilus is monophyletic, while sect. Schyphoides and sect. Pleurotelloides are not.

Keywords

Entolomataceae Rhodocybe Phylogeny Pleurotoid Ancestral character reconstruction Spore evolution 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank Hermann Voglmayr for providing the SEM pictures of the spores, and Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber for providing the Latin diagnosis. Thom Kuyper critically read an earlier draft of this paper, for which we are very grateful. The authors are thankful to Jesus Aguirre-Gutiérrez for the help in R.

Supplementary material

11557_2016_1165_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.6 mb)
Figure S1 Graphic display of the raw probabilities and the trend line of each spore state per node (relative to the Fig. 3) without (left) and with (right) information about the reticulate spore type in the Rhodocybe-Clitopilus clade. Based on the 4 runs of BI and ACS reconstruction with RJMCMC model, both with 25 % burn in. Legend: red: bumpy spores; green: longitudinally ridged; blue: smooth spores; purple: reticulate spores. Node 1: a, f; Node 2: b, g; Node 3: c, h; Node 4: d, i; Node 5: e, j. (PDF 1.59 MB)
11557_2016_1165_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (10 kb)
Table S2 ACS probability using MLML method per node (specified in Fig. 1), with and without knowledge of the new spore character state – reticulated spore, with probability changes highlighted in bold. (PDF 10.4 kb)

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Copyright information

© German Mycological Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis N. Morgado
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Machiel E. Noordeloos
    • 1
  • Anton Hausknecht
    • 3
  1. 1.Botany DepartmentNaturalis Biodiversity CenterLeidenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Section for Genetics and Evolutionary Biology (Evogene), Department of BiosciencesUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  3. 3.Faculty Centre of BiodiversityUniversity of ViennaWienAustria

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