Clitopilus reticulosporus, a new species with unique spore ornamentation, its phylogenetic affinities and implications on the spore evolution theory
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Clitopilus reticulosporus (Entolomataceae, Agaricales) growing on rotting wood is described as a new species based on collections from Austria and Hungary. Multi-gene phylogenetic analysis of ITS, rpb2, LSU and mtSSU confirms the placement of C. reticulosporus in the Clitopilus-Rhodocybe clade in the Entolomataceae. It is nested within the subclade containing the species with clitopiloid spores (Clitopilus s. str.). Scanning electron microscopy studies demonstrate that the spores of this species have a peculiar reticulate ornamentation resembling an intermediate form between the clitopiloid type with longitudinal ribs, and the rhodocyboid type with irregular bumps and ridges. However, our ancestral character reconstruction suggests that (1) this character state is not an intermediate form and (2) the discovery of this new character state does not have a direct implication on the Entolomataceae spore evolution theory. Our phylogenetic reconstruction uncovered, at least, three distinct lineages in the Clitopilus s. str. clade, and suggest that sect. Clitopilus is monophyletic, while sect. Schyphoides and sect. Pleurotelloides are not.
KeywordsEntolomataceae Rhodocybe Phylogeny Pleurotoid Ancestral character reconstruction Spore evolution
The authors wish to thank Hermann Voglmayr for providing the SEM pictures of the spores, and Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber for providing the Latin diagnosis. Thom Kuyper critically read an earlier draft of this paper, for which we are very grateful. The authors are thankful to Jesus Aguirre-Gutiérrez for the help in R.
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