Mycological Progress

, 14:83 | Cite as

A new whitish truffle, Tuber thailandicum from northern Thailand and its ectomycorrhizal association

  • Nakarin Suwannarach
  • Jaturong Kumla
  • Saisamorn Lumyong
Original Article


A new species of whitish truffle, Tuber thailandicum, is described based on collections from northern Thailand. This species is characterized by whitish ascomata with dark brown gleba and subglobose spores with an alveolate reticulum. Tuber thailandicum is similar to T. castilloi, but differs in the thicker peridium and wider spores in one-spored asci. Molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and large subunit of ribosomal DNA also supports that T. thailandicum is clearly different from previously described whitish truffle species. It grows in mycorrhizal association with Betula alnoides, and the morphology and anatomy of mycorrhizae are described. Moreover, the identification of mycorrhizal status was confirmed by molecular methods.


Ascomycota Hypogeous fungi Taxonomy Phylogeny Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis 



This work was supported by grants from Chiang Mai University and TRF Research-Team Association Grant (RTA5880006). We are grateful to Prof. Dr. Robert J. McGovern and Mr. Keegan Kennedy for English proof reading.


  1. Agerer R (1986) Studies on ectomycorrhizae. II introducing remarks on characterization identification. Mycotaxon 26:473–492Google Scholar
  2. Agerer R (1991) Studies on ectomycorrhizae XXXIV. Mycorrhizae of Gomphidius glutinosus and of G. roseus with some remarks on Gomphidiaceae (Basidiomycetes). Nova Hedwigia 53:127–170Google Scholar
  3. Agerer R (2006) Fungal relationships and structural identity of their ectomycorrhizae. Mycol Prog 5:67–107. doi: 10.1007/s11557-006-0505-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alvarado P, Moreno G, Manjón JL (2012) Comparison between Tuber gennadii and T. oligospermum lineages reveals the existence of the new species T. cistophilum (Tuberaceae, Pezizales). Mycologia 104:894–910. doi: 10.3852/ 11-254 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baciarelli-Falini L, Rubini A, Riccioni C, Paolocci F (2006) Morphological and molecular analyses of ectomycorrhizal diversity in a man-made T. melanosporum plantation: description of novel truffle-like morphotypes. Mycorrhiza 16:475–484. doi: 10.1007/s00572-006-0066-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baum DA, Small RL, Wendel JF (1998) Biogeography and floral evolution of Baobabs (Adansonia, Bombacaceae) as inferred from multiple data sets. Syst Biol 47:181–207CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Benucci GMN, Bonito G, Falini LB, Bencivenga M (2012) Mycorrhization of Pecan trees (Carya illinoinensis) with commercial truffle species: Tuber aestivum Vittad. and Tuber borchii Vittad. Mycorrhiza 22:383–392. doi: 10.1007/s00572-011-0413-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Blaschke H (1987) Vorkommen und charakterisierung der ektomykorrrhizaassoziation Tuber puberulum mit Picea abies. Z Mykol 53:283–288Google Scholar
  9. Bonito G, Grygansyi AP, Trappe JM, Vilgalys R (2010a) A global meta-analysis of Tuber ITS rDNA sequences: species diversity, host associations and long-distance dispersal. Mol Ecol 19:4994–5008. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04855.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bonito G, Trappe JM, Donovan S, Vilgalys R (2011) The Asian black truffle Tuber indicum can form ectomycorrhizas with North American host plants and complete its life cycle in non-native soils. Fungal Ecol 4:83–93. doi: 10.1016/j.funeco.2010.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bonito G, Trappe JM, Rawlimson P, Vilgalys R (2010b) Improved resolution of major clades whitish Tuber and taxonomy of species within the Tuber gibbosum complex. Mycologia 102:1042–1057. doi: 10.3852/09-213 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Boutahir S, Iotti M, Piattoni F, Zambonelli A (2013) Morphological and molecular characterization of Tuber oligospermum mycorrhizas. Afr J Agric Res 8:4081–4087. doi: 10.5897/AJAR2013.7354 Google Scholar
  13. Bulman SR, Visnovsky SB, Hall IR, Guerin-Laguette A, Wang Y (2010) Molecular and morphological identification of truffle-producing Tuber species in New Zealand. Mycol Prog 9:205–214. doi: 10.1007/s11557-009-0626-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen J, Liu PG (2007) Tuber latisporum sp. nov. and related taxa, based on morphology and DNA sequence data. Mycologia 99:475–481. doi: 10.3852/mycologia.99.3.475 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen J, Liu PG, Wang Y (2005) Tuber umbilicatum, a new species from China, with a key to the spinose-reticulate spored Tuber species. Mycotaxon 94:1–6Google Scholar
  16. Chen YL, Gong MQ (2000) Truffles Tuber spp.: biodiversity and geological distribution. Edible Fungi of China 19:25–26Google Scholar
  17. Cooke MC, Massee G (1892) Himalayan truffles. Grevellea 20:67Google Scholar
  18. Deng XJ, Liu PG, Liu CY, Wang Y (2013) A new white truffle species, Tuber panzhihuanense from China. Mycol Prog 12:557–561. doi: 10.1007/s11557-012-0862-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fan L, Cao JZ (2012) Two new species of white truffle from China. Mycotaxon 121:297–304. doi: 10.5248/121.297 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fan L, Cao JZ, Liu YY, Li Y (2011a) Two new species of tuber from China. Mycotaxon 116:349–354. doi: 10.5248/116.349
  21. Fan L, Cao JZ, Yu J (2012a) Tuber in China: T. sinopuberulum and T. vesicoperidium spp. nov. Mycotaxon 121:255–263. doi: 10.5248/121.255 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fan L, Cao JZ, Zheng ZH, Li Y (2012b) Tuber in China: T. microspermum and T. microspiculatum spp. nov. Mycotaxon 199:391–395. doi: 10.5248/119.391 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fan L, Feng S, Cao JZ (2014) The phylogenetic position of Tuber glabrum sp. nov. and T. sinomonosporum nom. nov., two Paradoxa-like truffle species from China. Mycol Prog 13:241–246. doi: 10.1007/s11557-013-0908-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fan L, Hou CL, Cao JZ (2011b) Tuber sinoalbidum and T. polyspermum – new species from China. Mycotaxon 118:403–410. doi: 10.5248/118.403 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fan L, Yue SF (2013) Phylogenetic divergence of three morphologically similar truffles: Tuber sphaerosporum, T. sinosphaerosporum, and T. pseudospaerosporum sp. nov. Mycotaxon 125:283–288. doi: 10.5248/125.283 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39:783–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. García-Montero LG, Díaz P, Martín-Fernández S, Casermeiro MA (2008) Soil factors that favour the production of Tuber melanosporum carpophores over other truffle species: a multivariate statistical approach. Acta Agric Scand B 58:322–329. doi: 10.1080/09064710701743286 Google Scholar
  28. García-Montero LG, Díaz P, Massimo GD, García-Abril A (2010) A review of research on Chinese Tuber species. Mycol Prog 9:315–335. doi: 10.1007/s11557-009-0647-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Giomaro G, Zambonelli A, Sisti D, Cecchini M, Evangelista, Stocchi V (2000) Anatomical and morphological characterization of mycorrhizas of five strains of Tuber borchii Vittad. Mycorrhiza 10:107–114. doi: 10.1007/s005720000065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Guevara G, Bonito G, Trappe JM, Cázares E, Williams G, Healy RA, Schadt C, Vilgalys G (2013) New north american truffles (Tuber spp.) and their ectomycorrhizal associations. Mycologia 105:194–209. doi: 10.3852/12-087 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hall IR, Brown GT, Zambonelli A (2007) Taming the truffle, the history, lore and science of the ultimate mushroom. Timber Press, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  32. Hall IR, Yun W, Amicucci A (2003) Cultivation of edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms. Trends Biotechnol 21:433–438. doi: 10.1139/B04-051 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. He XY, Li HM, Wang Y (2004) Tuber zhongdianense sp. nov. from China. Mycotaxon 90:213–216. doi: 10.5248/121.255 Google Scholar
  34. Hu HT, Wang Y (2005) Tuber furfuraceum sp. nov. from Taiwan. Mycotaxon 93:155–157Google Scholar
  35. Karkouri KE, Murat C, Zampieri E, Bonfante P (2007) Identification of internal transcribed spacer sequence motifs in truffles: a first step toward their DNA bar cording. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:5320–5330. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00530-07 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Kinoshita A, Sasaki H, Nara K (2011) Phylogeny and diversity of Japanese truffles (Tuber spp.) inferred from sequences of four nuclear loci. Mycologia 103:779–794. doi: 10.3852/10-138 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008) Ainsworth and Bisby’s dictionary of the fungi, 10th edn. Oxon, UKGoogle Scholar
  38. Kornerup A, Wanscher JH (1967) Methuen handbook of colour, 2nd edn. Eyre Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  39. Kovács GM, Jakucs E (2006) Morphological and molecular comparison of white truffle ectomycorrhizae. Mycorrhiza 16:567–574. doi: 10.1007/s005720060071-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Lancellotti E, Iotti M, Zambonelli A, Franceschini A (2014) Characterization of Tuber borchii and Arbutus unedo mycorrhizas. Mycorrhiza 24:481–486. doi: 10.1007/s00572-014-0564-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Li J, Shoup S (2005) Phylogenetic of Betula (Betulaceae) inferred from sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Rhodora 107:69–86. doi: 10.3119/04-14.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Li SH, Zheng LY, Liu CY, Wang Y, Li L, Zhao YC, Zhang XL, Yang M, Xiong HK, Qing Y, Wang L, Zhou DQ (2014) Two new truffles species, Tuber alboumbilicum and Tuber pseudobrumale from China. Mycol Prog 13:1157–1163. doi: 10.1007/s11557-014-1004-0 Google Scholar
  43. Liu B (1985) New species and new records of hypogeous fungi from China I. Acta Mycol Sin 4:84–89Google Scholar
  44. Liu B, Liu YH (1994) Study on hypogeous fungi in China. Chinese Fungi 9:157–165Google Scholar
  45. Mortimer PE, Karunarathna SC, Li Q, Gui H, Yang X, Yang X, He J, Ye L, Guo J, Li H, Sysouphanthong P, Zhou D, Xu J, Hyde KD (2012) Prized edible Asian mushrooms: ecology, conservation and sustainability. Fungal Divers 56:31–47. doi: 10.1007/s13225-012-0196-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Murrill WA (1920) Another new truffle. Mycologia 12:157–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Paolocci F, Rubini A, Granetti B, Arcioni S (1999) Rapid molecular approach for a reliable identification of Tuber spp. ectomycorrhizae. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 28:23–30. doi: 10.1016/S0168-6496(98)00088-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rauscher T, Müller WR, Chevalier G, Agerer R (1996) Tuber borchii Vitt. In: Agerer R (ed) Colour atlas of ectomycorrhizae. Einhorn Verlag, Schwäbisch Gmüad, p 113Google Scholar
  49. Rey JF (2001) Creation et origine de la commercialisation de la truffe de Chine en France et dans le monde. In: Corvoisier M, Olivier JM, Chevalier G (eds) Federation Française des Trufficulteurs, Proceedings du Ve Congrès International Science et Culture de la Truffe, Paris, pp 517–518Google Scholar
  50. Riousset G, Riousset L, Chevalier G, Bardet MC (2001) Truffe d’Europe et de Chine. INRA, ParisGoogle Scholar
  51. Ronquist F, Teslenko M, van der Mark P, Ayres DL, Darling A, Höhna S, Larget B, Liu L, Suchard MA, Huelsenbeck JP (2012) MrBayes 3.2: efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and modelchoice across a large model space. Syst Biol 61:539–542. doi: 10.1093/sysbio/sys029 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Rubini A, Paolocci F, Granetti B, Arcioni S (2001) Morphological characterization of molecular-typed Tuber magnatum ectomycorrhizae. Mycorrhiza 11:179–185. doi: 10.1007/s005720100116 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stobbe U, Büntgen U, Sproll L, Tegel W, Egli S, Fink S (2012) Spatial distribution and ecological variation of re-discovered German truffle habitats. Fungal Ecol 5:591–599. doi: 10.1016/j.funeco.2012.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stobbe U, Egli S, Tegel W, Peter M, Sproll L, Büntgen U (2013) Potential and limitation of Burgundy truffle cultivation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:5215–5224. doi: 10.1007/s00253-013-4956-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Su KM, Xiong WP, Wang Y, Li SH, Xie R, Baima D (2013) Tuber bomiense, a new truffle species from Tibet, China. Mycotaxon 126:127–132. doi: 10.5248/126.127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Swofford DL (2002) PAUP*: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods), beta version 4.0b10. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  57. Tao K (1988) Taxonomic study on hypogeous fungi of China. The University of Shanxi, Taiyuan, DissertationGoogle Scholar
  58. Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higguns DG (1997) The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible stratgies for multiple sequene alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 24:4876–4882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Trappe JM (1976) Notes on Japanese hypogeous ascomycetes. Trans Mycol Soc Jpn 17:209–217Google Scholar
  60. Trappe JM, Molina R, Luoma DL, Cázares E, Pilz D, Smith JE, Castellano MA, Miller SL, Trappe MJ (2009) Diversity, ecology, and conservation of truffle fungi in forests of the pacific northwest. Portland, OregonGoogle Scholar
  61. Vilgalys R, Hester M (1990) Rapid genetic identification and mapping of enzymatically amplified ribosomal DNA from several Cryptococcus species. J Bacteriol 172:4239–4246Google Scholar
  62. Wang Y, He XY (2002) Tuber huidongense sp. nov. from China. Mycotaxon 83:191–194Google Scholar
  63. Wang Y, Moreno G, Riousset L, Manjón JL, Riousset G, Fourré G, Di Massimo G, García-Montero LG, Díez J (1998) Tuber pseudoexcavatum sp. nov. a Chinese species commercialised in Spain, France and Italy with comments on Chinese truffles. Cryptogam Mycolog 19:113–120Google Scholar
  64. Weden C, Chevalier G, Danell E (2004) Tuber aestivum (syn. T. uncinatum) biotopes and their history on Gotland, Sweden. Mycol Res 108:304–310. doi: 10.1017/S0953756204009256 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. White TJ, Burns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, Whitish TJ (eds) PCR protocols, a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 315–322Google Scholar
  66. Xu AS (1999) A taxonomic study of the genus Tuber in Xizang. Mycosystema 18:361–365Google Scholar
  67. Zambonelli A, Iotti M, Amicucci A, Pisi A (1999) Caratterizzazione anatomo-morfologica delle micorrize di Tuber maculatum Vittad. su Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. Micol Ital 28:29–35Google Scholar

Copyright information

© German Mycological Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nakarin Suwannarach
    • 1
  • Jaturong Kumla
    • 1
  • Saisamorn Lumyong
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand

Personalised recommendations