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Mycological Progress

, 14:25 | Cite as

Molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy in Psathyrellaceae (Agaricales) with focus on psathyrelloid species: introduction of three new genera and 18 new species

  • Leif Örstadius
  • Martin Ryberg
  • Ellen Larsson
Original Article

Abstract

Based on traditional morphology, sequence data, and phylogenetic analyses, 18 new species are here described: Coprinellus christianopolitanus, Coprinopsis musae, C. udicola, Psathyrella arenosa, P. carminei, P. fennoscandica, P. ichnusae, P. lilliputana, P. lyckebodensis, P. madida, P. rybergii, P. sabuletorum, P. scanica, P. siccophila, P. stridvallii, P. sublatispora, P. vesterholtii, and Typhrasa nanispora. Psathyrella hololanigera and P. tenera are reported as new to Europe and P. parva as new to the Nordic countries. A four-gene dataset on Psathyrellaceae were analyzed by Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Constraint analyses were performed to determine limits of /Psathyrella, and to evaluate whether the /Coprinellus, /cordisporus, and /gossypina clades could be regarded with confidence as monophyletic clades outside of the clade /Psathyrella. This was not unambiguously supported. Based on the phylogenetic results, Kauffmania is proposed as a monotypic genus for the species P. larga and Typhrasa for P. gossypina and the new described species T. nanispora. The genus Homophron is formally validated and three combinations are proposed: H. spadiceum, H. cernuum, and H. camptopodum. The genus Cystoagaricus Singer is emended and the following new combinations are proposed: C. hirtosquamulosus, C. squarrosiceps, C. olivaceogriseus, and C. silvestris. Neotypes have been selected for seven species described by Fries, and ITS sequence data for these were generated. The following new combinations are proposed: Coprinopsis canoceps, C. cineraria, C. melanthina, C. submicrospora, C. uliginicola, and Typhrasa gossypina. Brief comments are given to other species of interest. Psathyrella ornatispora were found not to belong in Psathyrellaceae. A key to 106 psathyrelloid species in Northern Europe is provided.

Keywords

Homophron Kauffmania Typhrasa Cystoagaricus Molecular phylogenetics Systematics Taxonomy Species diversity Neotype, epitype 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors want to express their gratitude to several contributors of valuable material and for assistance of various kinds: Eef Arnolds, David Boertmann, Manfred Enderle, Guillaume Eyssartier, Tomas Hallingbäck, Sven-Åke Hanson, Anton Hausknecht, Stig Jacobsson, Thomas Laessøe, Karl-Henrik Larsson, Erik Ljungstrand, Erhard Ludwig, Andreas Melzer, Jens H. Petersen, Arne Ryberg, Laszlo Nagy, Svengunnar Ryman. To the curators of the following herbaria: AH, AMNH, B, BAFC, BR, C, CBM, CUP, E, F, G, GDGM, GH, H, K, L, LD, MICH, NY, NYS, O, PC, S, SGO, SZE, TAA, TROM, TURA, UPS, WAG-W, WBS, WU, XAL, ZT. Financial support was received from The Swedish Taxonomy Initiative, ArtDatabanken, SLU, Uppsala (EL)

Supplementary material

11557_2015_1047_MOESM1_ESM.doc (476 kb)
Supplementary material S1 Additional specimens morphologically studied (DOC 476 kb)
11557_2015_1047_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (229 kb)
Supplementary material S2 A key to the psathyrelloid species in Northern Europe (PDF 228 kb)
11557_2015_1047_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (1.8 mb)
Supplementary material S3 Illustrations of the new described and identified species (PDF 1821 kb)

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Copyright information

© German Mycological Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.KristianstadSweden
  2. 2.Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic BiologyUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  3. 3.Biological and Environmental SciencesUniversity of GothenburgGöteborgSweden

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