Mycological Progress

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 869–878

Two new species of Pluteus (Pluteaceae, Agaricales) from India and additional observations on Pluteuschrysaegis

  • C. K. Pradeep
  • A. Justo
  • K. B. Vrinda
  • Varghese P. Shibu
Original Article


Two new species of Pluteus collected in Kerala State (India) are described based on morphological and molecular (nrITS) characters. Pluteus brunneosquamulosus of sect. Celluloderma is characterized by the squamulose, ‘Lepiota-like’, pileus, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid spores, cheilocystidia with a long flexuous neck and lageniform or narrowly utriform caulocystidia. Pluteus velutinus belongs in sect. Hispidoderma and is unique in its shallowly depressed, hygrophanous, orange-brown, \velvety, squamulose pileus, the pleurocystidia very commonly provided with an apical digitate projection up to 10 μm long or tapering towards apex and the pileipellis as a trichoderm or trichohymeniderm. P. chrysaegis from India and P. conizatus var. africanus from Africa are considered synonymous based on morphological and molecular evidence.


Taxonomy Kerala Hispidoderma Celluloderma ITS phylogeny 


  1. Banerjee P, Sundberg WJ (1993) Reexamination of Pluteus type specimens: Types housed at the New York Botanical Garden. Mycotaxon 49:413–435Google Scholar
  2. Gardes M, Bruns TD (1993) ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Molecular Ecology 2:113–118. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.1993.tb00005.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Homola RL (1972) Section Celluloderma of the genus Pluteus in North America. Mycologia 64:1211–1247. doi:10.2307/3757960 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Horak E (1964) Fungi austroamericani II. Pluteus Fr. Nova Hedwigia 8:163–199Google Scholar
  5. Horak E, Heinemann P (1978) Flore Illustrée des champignons d'Afrique centrale 6: Pluteus & Volvariella (compléments). National Botanical Garden of Belgium, MeiseGoogle Scholar
  6. Justo A, Castro ML (2007) An annotated checklist of Pluteus in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Mycotaxon 102:231–234Google Scholar
  7. Justo A, Minnis AM, Ghignone S, Menolli N Jr, Capelari M, Rodríguez O, Malysheva E, Contu M, Vizzini A (2011a) Species recognition in Pluteus and Volvopluteus (Pluteaceae, Agaricales): morphology, geography and phylogeny. Mycol Prog 10:453–479. doi:10.1007/s11557–010–0716–z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Justo A, Vizzini A, Minnis AM, Menolli N Jr, Capelari M, Rodríguez O, Malysheva E, Contu M, Ghignone S, Hibbett DS (2011b) Phylogeny of the Pluteaceae (Agaricales, Basidiomycota): Taxonomy and character evolution. Fung Biol 115:1–20. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2010.09.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Katoh K, Toh H (2008) Recent developments in the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. Briefings in Bioinformatics 9:286–298. doi:10.1093/bib/bbn013 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kornerup A, Wanscher JH (1978) Methuen Handbook of Colour. 3 edn. Eyre Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Kühner R, Romagnesi H (1956) Compléments à la flore analytique. VIII. Espèces nouvelles, critiques ou rares de Volvariacées. Bull Trim Soc Mycol France 72:181–249Google Scholar
  12. Maddison DR, Maddison WP (2002) MacClade4: analysis of phylogeny and character evolution. Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA. Sinauer AssociatesGoogle Scholar
  13. Minnis AM, Sundberg WJ (2010) Pluteus section Celluloderma in the U.S.A. North American Fungi 5:1–107, 10.2509/naf2009.005.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Orton PD (1986) Pluteaceae: Pluteus and Volvariella. In: British Fungus Flora 4 (ed) Agarics and Boleti. Royal Botanic Garden, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  15. Pegler DN (1977) A preliminary Agaric flora of East Africa. Kew Bull Addit Ser 6:1–615Google Scholar
  16. Pegler DN (1983) Agaric flora of Lesser Antilles. Kew Bull Addit Ser 9:1–668Google Scholar
  17. Pegler DN (1986) Agaric flora of Sri Lanka. Kew Bull Addit Ser 12:1–519Google Scholar
  18. Pradeep CK, Vrinda KB (2005a) New records of Pluteus Fr. from Kerala. Mushroom Res 14:1–4Google Scholar
  19. Pradeep CK, Vrinda KB (2005b) New additions to the genus Pluteus Fr. from India. Mushroom Res 14:46–49Google Scholar
  20. Pradeep CK, Vrinda KB (2006) New and noteworthy species of Pluteus (Pluteaceae, Agaricales) from Kerala state, India. Persoonia 19:95–99Google Scholar
  21. Pradeep CK, Vrinda KB (2008) Two new Pluteus (Basidiomycotina, Agaricales) from Kerala, India. Nova Hedwigia 87:231–236. doi:10.1127/0029-5035/2008/0087-0231 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pradeep CK, Vrinda KB, Abraham TK (2002) Pluteus section Pluteus (Pluteaceae, Agaricales) from Kerala State India. Mycotaxon 83:59–66Google Scholar
  23. Singer R (1956) Contribution toward a monograph of the genus Pluteus. Trans Brit Mycol Soc 39:145–232. doi:10.1016/S0007-1536(56)80001-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Singer R (1958) Monograph of South American Basidiomycetes, especially those of the east slope of the Andes and Brazil. Lloydia 21:195–299Google Scholar
  25. Singer R (1986) The Agaricales in modern taxonomy, 4th edn. Koeltz Scientific Books, KoenigsteinGoogle Scholar
  26. Smith AH, Stuntz DE (1958) Studies on the genus Pluteus I. Redescriptions of American species based on a study of type specimens. Lloydia 21:115–136Google Scholar
  27. Stamatakis A, Hoover P, Rougemont J (2008) A Rapid Bootstrap Algorithm for the RAxML Web–Servers. Syst Biol 75:758–771. doi:10.1080/10635150802429642 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Takehashi S, Hoshina T, Kasuya T (2010) Taxonomic Studies on Agaricales of Hokkaido, Northern Japan, with special references to Melanoleuca, Oudemansiella, Xerula, Volvariella and Pluteus. NPO The Forum of Fungi in Northern Japan, SapporoGoogle Scholar
  29. Vellinga EC (1988) Glossary: Flora Agaricina Neerlandica 1 (eds. Bas C, Kuyper TW, Noordeloos ME, Vellinga EC) Brookfield Balkema, Rotterdam: 54–64Google Scholar
  30. Vellinga EC (1990) Pluteaceae Kotl. & P.: Flora Agaricina Neerlandica 2 (eds. Bas C, Kuyper TW, Noordeloos ME, Vellinga EC) Brookfield Balkema, Rotterdam: 31–55Google Scholar
  31. Vellinga EC, Schreurs J (1985) Notulae ad floram agaricinam Neerlandicum 8. Pluteus Fr. in West Europe. Persoonia 12:337–373Google Scholar
  32. White TJ, Bruns T, Lee SS, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© German Mycological Society and Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. K. Pradeep
    • 1
  • A. Justo
    • 2
  • K. B. Vrinda
    • 1
  • Varghese P. Shibu
    • 1
  1. 1.Tropical Botanic Garden & Research InstituteTrivandrumIndia
  2. 2.Biology DepartmentClark UniversityWorcesterUSA

Personalised recommendations