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Species recognition in Pluteus and Volvopluteus (Pluteaceae, Agaricales): morphology, geography and phylogeny


The phylogeny of several species-complexes of the genera Pluteus and Volvopluteus (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) was investigated using molecular data (ITS) and the consequences for taxonomy, nomenclature and morphological species recognition in these groups were evaluated. Conflicts between morphological and molecular delimitation were detected in sect. Pluteus, especially for taxa in the cervinus-petasatus clade with clamp-connections or white basidiocarps. Some species of sect. Celluloderma are apparently widely distributed in Europe, North America and Asia, either with (P. aurantiorugosus, P. chrysophlebius, P. fenzlii, P. phlebophorus) or without (P. romellii) molecular differentiation in collections from different continents. A lectotype and a supporting epitype are designated for Pluteus cervinus, the type species of the genus. The name Pluteus chrysophlebius is accepted as the correct name for the species in sect. Celluloderma, also known under the names P. admirabilis and P. chrysophaeus. A lectotype is designated for the latter. Pluteus saupei and Pluteus heteromarginatus, from the USA, P. castri, from Russia and Japan, and Volvopluteus asiaticus, from Japan, are described as new. A complete description and a new name, Pluteus losulus, are given for the African P. cervinus var. ealaensis. The American Volvopluteus michiganensis is described in detail. Taxonomic comments and a morphology-based key to all known species of Volvopluteus are provided.

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The curators of BR, CBM, EIU, F, ILLS, LOU, MA, MICH, NYBG, REG, SIU, SP and TNSF are gratefully acknowledged for managing the loans of their respective collections. The assistance of Nathan Kallen in the lab bench made this work much easier. The technical support of and helpful discussions with Manfred Binder are greatly appreciated. Dimitris Floudas and Brian Seitzman helped with the collecting trips in Massachusetts and Florida. Comments from two reviewers helped to improve the manuscript. Financial support was received from a postdoctoral grant of the Autonomous Government of Galicia (Spain) to A. Justo and from the NSF grant DEB0933081. A. Minnis acknowledges the support from the Alexander H. and Helen V. Smith Research Fund (Mycological Society of America) and also D. Nickrent and S. Sipes (SIU) for providing lab supplies for earlier molecular work. N. Menolli and M. Capelari thank FAPESP (grant 04/04319-2) for the financial support.

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Correspondence to Alfredo Justo.

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Justo, A., Minnis, A.M., Ghignone, S. et al. Species recognition in Pluteus and Volvopluteus (Pluteaceae, Agaricales): morphology, geography and phylogeny. Mycol Progress 10, 453–479 (2011).

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  • Biodiversity
  • ITS
  • Phylogeny
  • Pluteus
  • Species delimitation
  • Volvopluteus