Mycological Progress

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 195–203 | Cite as

The neglected hypogeous fungus Hydnotrya bailii Soehner (1959) is a widespread sister taxon of Hydnotrya tulasnei (Berk.) Berk. & Broome (1846)

  • Benjamin Stielow
  • Ben Bubner
  • Gunnar Hensel
  • Babette Münzenberger
  • Peter Hoffmann
  • Hans-Peter Klenk
  • Markus Göker
Original Article


The neglected false truffle species Hydnotrya bailii Soehner (Ascomycetes, Discinaceae) is re-described and separated from its sister taxon Hydnotrya tulasnei by morphological and phylogenetic analyses based on internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences. The most distinct morphological and ecological characters are small globose, rather than kidney-like, ascomata as known from the sister taxon H. tulasnei, strictly monoseriate ascospores and montane habitats. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in two clearly separated clusters that revealed the ectomycorrhizal specificity of H. bailii to Picea abies and that H. tulasnei is preferably associated to Fagus sylvatica. We also show that H. bailii was already present in mycorrhizal samples but until now could not be correctly assigned. Our analyses also indicate cryptic diversity within H. cerebriformis and other, morphologically not yet characterized, Hydnotrya groups. An emended determination key for all Hydnotrya species known from Central Europe is provided.


Cryptic species Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis Soil ecology False truffles Taxonomy 



We thank M. Roth, Müncheberg for technical assistance.

Supplementary material

Supplementary 1 (NEX 73.3 kb)
Supplementary 2 (NEX 138 kb)


  1. Albee-Scott SR (2007) Does secotioid inertia drive the evolution of false-truffles? Mycol Res 111:1030–1039. doi: 10.1016/j.mycres.2007.08.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ (1990) Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215:403–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Binder M, Bresinsky A (2002) Derivation of a polymorphic lineage of Gasteromycetes from boletoid ancestors. Mycologia 94:85–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brock M, Döring H, Bidartondo MI (2009) How to know unknown fungi: the role of a herbarium. New Phytol 181:719–724. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02703.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Castresana J (2000) Selection of conserved blocks from multiple alignments for their use in phylogenetic analysis. Mol Biol Evol 17:540–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Dickie IA, Dentinger BTM, Avis PG, McLaughlin DJ, Reich PB (2009) Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of oak savanna are distinct from forest communities. Mycologia. doi: 10.3852/08-178 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Felsenstein J (1981) Evolutionary trees from DNA sequences: a maximum likelihood approach. J Mol Evol 17:368–376CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Fitch WM (1971) Towards defining the course of evolution: minimal change for a specified tree topology. Syst Zool 20:406–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gardes M, Bruns TD (1993) ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Mol Ecol 2:113–118. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.1993.tb00005.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Göker M, García-Blázquez G, Voglmayr H, Tellería MT, Martín MP (2009) Molecular taxonomy of phytopathogenic fungi: a case study in Peronospora. PLoS One 4:e6319. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006319 Google Scholar
  11. Hawker L (1954) British hypogeous fungi. Phil Trans Roy Soc London 237:429–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hesse R (1890) Die Hypogaeen Deutschlands Band II. Verlag L Hoffstetter, HalleGoogle Scholar
  13. Hibbett DS, Pine EM, Langer E, Langer G, Donoghue MJ (1997) Evolution of gilled mushrooms and puffballs inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences. PNAS 94:12002–12006CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hollos L (1911) Magyarország földalatti gombái, Szarvasgombaféléi (Fungi Hypogaei Hungariae). Budapest, KiadjaGoogle Scholar
  15. Ishida TA, Nara K, Hogetsu T (2007) Host effects on ectomycorrhizal fungal communities: insight from eight host species in mixed conifer-broad leaf forests. New Phytol 174:430–440. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02016.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Laesso T, Hansen K (2007) Truffle trouble: what happened to the Tuberales. Mycol Res 111:1075–1099. doi: 10.1016/j.mycres.2007.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lack B (2003) Hydnotrya cubispora in Wales. Field Mycol 4:4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee C, Grasso C, Sharlow MF (2002) Multiple sequence alignment using partial order graphs. Bioinformatics 18:452–464CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Montecchi A, Sarasini M (2000) Fungi ipogei d’Europa. AMB, TrentoGoogle Scholar
  20. Moser M (1963) Ascomyceten (Schlauchpilze) Band IIa. Gustav Fischer Verlag, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  21. Münzenberger B, Bubner B, Wöllecke J, Sieber TN, Bauer R, Fladung M, Hüttl RF (2009) The ectomycorrhizal morphotype Pinirhiza sclerotia is formed by Acephala macrosclerotiorum sp. nov., a close relative of Phialocephala fortinii. Mycorrhiza, doi: 10.1007/s00572-009-0239-0
  22. Ogura-Tsujita Y, Yukawa T (2008) Epipactis helleborine shows strong mycorrhizal preference towards ectomycorrhizal fungi with contrasting geographic distributions in Japan. Mycorrhiza 18:331–338. doi: 10.1007/s00572-008-0187-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Peintner U, Iotti M, Klotz P, Bonuso E, Zambonelli A (2007) Soil fungal communities in a Castanea sativa (chestnut) forest producing large quantities of Boletus edulis sensu lato (porcini): where is the mycelium of porcini? Environ Microbiol 9:880–889. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2006.01208.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Smith SE, Read DJ (2008) Mycorrhizal symbiosis, Academic pressGoogle Scholar
  25. Soehner E (1959) Tuberaceen Studien V, Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung MünchenGoogle Scholar
  26. Stamatakis A (2006) RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics 22:2688–2690CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Stamatakis A, Hoover P, Rougemont J (2008) A rapid bootstrap algorithm for the RAxML web servers. Syst Biol 75:758–771. doi: 10.1080/10635150802429642 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Swofford DL (2002) PAUP*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods), Version 4.0 b10. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  29. Szemere L (1965) Die unterirdischen Pilze des Karpatenbeckens. Akadémiai Kiadó, BudapestGoogle Scholar
  30. Thiers HD (1984) The secotioid syndrome. Mycologia 76:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tedersoo L, Kõljalg U, Hallenberg N, Larsson KH (2003) Fine scale distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi and roots across substrate layers including coarse woody debris in a mixed forest. New Phytol 159:153–165. doi: 10.1046/j.0028-646x.2003.00792.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tedersoo L, Hansen K, Perry BA, Kjøller R (2006) Molecular and morphological diversity of pezizalean ectomycorrhiza. New Phytol 170:581–596. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01678.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Trappe JM (1975) Generic synonyms in the Tuberales. Mycotaxon 2:109–122Google Scholar
  34. Vohnik M, Fendrych M, Kolarik M, Gryndler M, Hrselova H, Albrechtova J, Vosatka M (2007) The ascomycete Meliniomyces variabilis isolated from a sporocarp of Hydnotrya tulasnei (Pezizales) intracellularly colonises roots of ecto- and ericoid mycorrhizal host plants. Czech Mycol 59:215–226Google Scholar
  35. White TJ, Bruns TD, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) PCR Protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, New York, pp 315–322Google Scholar
  36. Zeller SM, Dodge CW (1924) Leucogaster and Leucophlebs in North America. Ann Mo Bot Gard 11:389–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhang BC (1991) Morphology, cytology and taxonomy of Hydnotrya cerebriformis (Pezizales). Mycotaxon 42:155Google Scholar

Copyright information

© German Mycological Society and Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin Stielow
    • 1
  • Ben Bubner
    • 2
  • Gunnar Hensel
    • 3
  • Babette Münzenberger
    • 2
  • Peter Hoffmann
    • 1
  • Hans-Peter Klenk
    • 1
  • Markus Göker
    • 1
  1. 1.DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbHBraunschweigGermany
  2. 2.ZALF–Leibniz-Zentrum für Agrarlandschaftsforschung e.V.Institut für LandschaftsstoffdynamikMünchebergGermany
  3. 3.Fungarium Gunnar HenselMerseburgGermany

Personalised recommendations