Advertisement

Mycological Progress

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 145–155 | Cite as

Ganoderma carocalcareus sp. nov., with crumbly-friable context parasite to saprobe on Anthocleista nobilis and its phylogenetic relationship in G. resinaceum group

  • Clovis Douanla-Meli
  • Ewald Langer
Original Article

Abstract

A new species Ganoderma carocalcareus (Basidiomycota, Ganodermataceae) was collected on living trunk and dead stumps of Anthocleista nobilis (Gentianaceae) in waterlogged swamps in the Mbalmayo Forest Reserve, Cameroon, and identified on the basis of morphology and phylogenetic analyses inferred from mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) rDNA sequences. Distinct phenotypic characteristics of the new species are dimorphism of basidiomata and variability in context structure and texture over developmental stages. The young basidiomata is ungulate to punk-shaped with context composed of vegetative hyphae attended by scattered, orbicular, smooth, thick-walled chlamydospores, and the mature basidiomata is cushion- to bracket-like with context entirely consisting of chlamydospores masses. This ontogeny intimates the origin of chlamydospores, for which the biogenesis correlates the vanishing of vegetative hyphae throughout the basidiomata maturation. Morphological comparison included Tomophagus colossus (=G. colossus), G. subamboinense and G. weberianum, the known Ganodermataceae species producing chlamydospores and or gasterospores in basidiomata tissues, and G. resinaceum, the closest species with regard to morphology. It followed that G. carocalcareus could not be assigned to these or any other known Ganoderma species. Analyses of mtSSU and ITS rDNA sequence data resolved G. carocalcareus in the G. resinaceum group as a distinct species, but being a close relative of both G. subamboinense and G. weberianum.

Keywords

Chlamydospores Laccate fungi Plant pathogen Swamped areas rDNA sequences 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are much obliged to the curator of BR for loaning African specimens of T. colossus. Prof. Leif Ryvarden (University of Oslo) is thanked for nomenclatural counselling. We are especially grateful to Mr. Harald Rühling (Cell Biology, University of Kassel) for helping with SEM micrographs. Fieldwork was financially supported by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) grant A/01/20502 to the first author.

References

  1. Adaskaveg JE, Gilbertson R (1986) Cultural studies and genetics of sexuality of Ganoderma lucidum and G. tsugae in relation to the taxonomy of the G. lucidum complex. Mycologia 78:694–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adaskaveg JE, Gilbertson R, Dunlap MR (1995) Effects of incubation time and temperature on in vitro selective delignification of silver leaf Oak by Ganoderma colossum. Appl Environ Microbiol 61(1):138–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Annesi T, Coppola R, Motta E (2003) Decay and canker caused by Inonotus rickii spreading on more urban tree species. For Pathol 33(6):405–412. doi: 10.1046/j.1437-4781.2003.00340.x Google Scholar
  4. Annesi T, Coppola R, D’Amico L, Motta E (2005) First report of Aberia caffra and Quercus cerris as hosts of Inonotus rickii. Plant Dis 89:107. doi: 10.1094/PD-89-0107C CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bahnweg G, Schulze S, Möller EM, Rosenbrock H, Langebartels C, Sandermann H (1998) DNA isolation from recalcitrant materials such as tree roots, bark and forest soil for the detection of fungal pathogens by polymerase chain reaction. Anal Biochem 262:79–82. doi: 10.1006/abio.1998.2769 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bazzalo ME, Wright JE (1982) Survey of the Argentine species of the Ganoderma lucidum complex. Mycotaxon 16:293–325Google Scholar
  7. Douanla-Meli C (2007) Fungi of Cameroon Ecological diversity with emphasis on the taxonomy of Non-gilled Hymenomycetes from the Mbalmayo Forest Reserve. Biblio Mycol 202:412Google Scholar
  8. Douanla-Meli C, Langer E (2004) A taxonomic study of the family Podoscyphaceae (Basidiomycetes), new species and new records in Cameroon. Mycotaxon 90(2):323–335Google Scholar
  9. Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution Int J Org Evolution 39:783–791. doi: 10.2307/2408678 Google Scholar
  10. Gardes M, Bruns TD (1993) ITS primers with enhanced specificity for Basidiomycetes – application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Mol Ecol 2:113–118. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.1993.tb00005.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gilbertson RL, Ryvarden L (1986) North American polypores, vol 1. Abortiporus-Lindtneria. Fungiflora, Oslo, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  12. Gilbertson RL, Ryvarden L (1987) North American polypores, vol 2. Megasporoporia - Wrightoporia. Fungiflora, OsloGoogle Scholar
  13. Gottlieb AM, Wright JE (1999) Taxonomy of Ganoderma from southern South America: subgenus Ganoderma. Mycol Res 103(6):661–673. doi: 10.1017/S0953756298007941 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hjortstam K, Ryvarden L, Watling R (1993) Preliminary checklist of non-agaricoid macromycetes in the Korup National Park, Cameroon and surrounding area. Edinb J Bot 50(1):105–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Holmgren PK, Holmgren NH, Barnett LC (1990) Index herbariorum: Part I: Herbaria of the World, 86th edn. New York Botanical Garden, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Hong SG, Jung HS (2004) Phylogenetic analysis of Ganoderma based on nearly complete mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Mycologia 96(4):742–755. doi: 10.2307/3762108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hong SG, Jeong W, Jung HS (2002) Amplification of mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA of polypores and its potential for phylogenetic analysis. Mycologia 94:823–833. doi: 10.2307/3761697 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hseu RS, Moncalvo J-M, Wang HF, Wang HH (1996a) Application of PCR-amplified DNA to differentiate the Ganoderma isolates. J Chin Agricul Chemic Soc 34(2):129–143Google Scholar
  19. Hseu RS, Moncalvo J-M, Wang HF, Wang HH (1996b) Differentiation and grouping of isolates of the Ganoderma lucidum complex by random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR compared with grouping on the basis of internal transcribed spacer sequences. Appl Environ Microbiol 62(4):1354–1363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Jasalavich CA, Ostrofsky A, Jellison J (2000) Detection and identification of decay fungi in spruce wood by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis of amplified genes encoding rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 66(11):4725–4734. doi: 10.1128/AEM.66.11.4725-4734.2000 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kim HK, Seo GS, Kim HG (2001) Comparison of characteristics of Ganoderma lucidum according to geographical origins (II): consideration of morphological characteristics. Microbiology 29:80–84Google Scholar
  22. Kim HK, Shim MY, Seo GS, Kim HG (2002) Comparison of characteristics of Ganoderma lucidum according to geographical origins (III): classification between species of genus Ganoderma using dikaryon-monokaryon mating. Mycobiology 30:61–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kornerup A, Wanscher JH (1978) Taschenlexikon der Farben, 1400 Farbnuancen und 600 Farbnamen. Musterschmidt-verlag. Zürich-Göttingen. 242 pGoogle Scholar
  24. Larget B, Simon DL (1999) Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for the Bayesian analysis of phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 16:750–759Google Scholar
  25. Loguercio-Leite C, Groposo C, Halmenschlager MA (2005) Species of Ganoderma Karsten in a subtropical area (Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil). Iheringia Sér Bot 60(2):135–ss139Google Scholar
  26. Moncalvo J-M, Ryvarden L (1997) A nomenclatural study of the Ganodermataceae Donk. Fungiflora, Oslo, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  27. Moncalvo J-M, Wang HF, Hseu RS (1995a) Gene phylogeny of the Ganoderma lucidum complex based on ribosomal DNA sequences. Comparison with traditional taxonomic characters. Mycol Res 99(12):1489–1499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moncalvo J-M, Wang HH, Hseu RS (1995b) Phylogenetic relationships in Ganoderma inferred from the internal transcribed spacers and 25S ribosomal DNA sequences. Mycologia 87(2):223–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nylander JAA (2004) MrModeltest 2.2. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala UniversityGoogle Scholar
  30. Quanten E (1997) The Polypores (Polyporaceae s.l.) of Papua New Guinea. A preliminary conspectus. Opera Bot Belg 11:352Google Scholar
  31. Rambaut A (2002) Sequence Alignment Editor. Version 2.0. Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OXI 4JD, UKGoogle Scholar
  32. Reid DA (1965) A monograph of stipitate stereoid fungi. Beih Nov Hedwigia 18:1–382Google Scholar
  33. Roberts P, Ryvarden L (2006) Poroid fungi from Korup National Park, Cameroon. Kew Bull 61:55–78Google Scholar
  34. Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck JP (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19:1572–1574. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btg180 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ryvarden L (1991) Genera of polypores. Nomenclature and taxonomy. Synopsis Fungorum 5, Fungoflora, Oslo, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  36. Ryvarden L (1992) Tropical polypores. In: Isaac S, Frakland JC, Watling R, Whalley AJS (eds) Aspects of tropical mycology. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 149–170Google Scholar
  37. Ryvarden L (1995) Can we trust morphology in Ganoderma? In: Buchanan PK, Hsea RS, Moncalvo JM (eds) Proceedings of Contributed Symposium 59. Fifth International Mycological Congress, Vancouver, Canada, pp 19–24Google Scholar
  38. Ryvarden L (2000) Studies in neotropical polypores 2: a preliminary key to neotropical species of Ganoderma with a lacate pileus. Mycologia 92:180–191. doi: 10.2307/3761462 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ryvarden L, Johansen I (1980) A preliminary polypore flora of East Africa. Fungiflora, Oslo, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  40. Seo GS, Kirk PM (2000) Ganodermataceae: Nomenclature and classification. In: Flood G, Bridge PD, Holderness M (eds) Ganoderma diseases of perennial crops. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxfordshire (Great Britain), pp 3–22Google Scholar
  41. Smith BJ, Sivasithamparam K (2000a) Internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequence of five species of Ganoderma from Australia. Mycol Res 104(8):943–951. doi: 10.1017/S0953756200002458 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Smith BJ, Sivasithamparam K (2000b) Isozymes of Ganoderma species from Australia. Mycol Res 104(8):952–961. doi: 10.1017/S0953756200002446 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Smith BJ, Sivasithamparam K (2003) Morphological studies of Ganoderma (Ganodermataceae) from the Australian and Pacific regions. Aust Syst Bot 16:487–503. doi: 10.1071/SB02001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Steyaert RL (1961) Genus Ganoderma (Polyporaceae). Taxa nova. I. Bull Jard Bot Etat Brux 31:69–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Steyaert RL (1962) Genus Ganoderma (Polyporaceae). Taxa nova. II. Bull Jard Bot Etat Brux 32:89–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Steyaert RL (1967) Les Ganoderma palmicoles. Bull Jard Bot Nat Belg 37:465–492. doi: 10.2307/3667472 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Steyaert RL (1980) Study of some Ganoderma species. Bull Jard Bot Nat Belg 50:135–186. doi: 10.2307/3667780 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Swofford DL (2002) PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (* and other methods), version 4. Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass.Google Scholar
  49. Tham L (1998) A phylogenetic hypothesis of the Ganodermataceae based on a possible mode of basidiospore evolution. Mycotaxon 69:1–12Google Scholar
  50. Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG (1997) The Clustal X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 24:4876–4882. doi: 10.1093/nar/25.24.4876 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor JW (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetic. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) PCR protocols: A guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, New York, pp 315–322Google Scholar
  52. Wu SH, Zhang X (2003) The Finding of three Ganodermataceae species in Taiwan. Coll Res 16:61–66Google Scholar
  53. Zhao J-D (1989) The Ganodermataceae in China. Bibl Mycol 132:1–176Google Scholar
  54. Zhaxybayeva O, Gogarten JP (2002) Bootstrap, Bayesian probability and maximum likelihood mapping: exploring new tools for comparative genome analyses. Genomics 3:1–15Google Scholar

Copyright information

© German Mycological Society and Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fachbereich 18 Naturwissenschaften, Institut für Biologie, Fachgebiet ÖkologieUniversität KasselKasselGermany

Personalised recommendations