Mycological Progress

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 41–66 | Cite as

The simple-septate basidiomycetes: a synopsis

  • Robert BauerEmail author
  • Dominik Begerow
  • José Paulo Sampaio
  • Michael Weiβ
  • Franz Oberwinkler
Original Article


The simple-septate basidiomycetes comprise more than 8,000 species that show a high morphological and ecological heterogeneity. To gain insight in the phylogenetic relationships within this group, we compared several ultrastructural features such as septal pore apparatus, form, and behavior of the spindle pole bodies, types of host–parasite interaction, presence or absence of colacosomes, symplechosomes, atractosomes, and cystosomes as well as nuclear rDNA sequences coding for small- and large-subunit rRNA. Based on our integrated analysis, we propose a new classification system for the simple-septate basidiomycetes with the subphylum Pucciniomycotina and the classes Agaricostilbomycetes, Atractiellomycetes, Classiculomycetes, Cryptomycocolacomycetes, Cystobasidiomycetes, Microbotryomycetes, Mixiomycetes, and Pucciniomycetes. We also propose the pucciniomycotinous taxa Cystobasidiales, Erythrobasidiales, Helicobasidiales, Mixiales, Naohideales, Pachnocybales, Spiculogloeales, and Kondoaceae and the new subphyla Agaricomycotina (equivalent to the current Hymenomycetes) and Ustilaginomycotina (equivalent to the current Ustilaginomycetes).

Taxonomical Novelties

Agaricomycotina Agaricostilbomycetes Atractiellomycetes Classiculomycetes Cryptomycocolacomycetes Cystobasidiales Cystobasidiomycetes Erythrobasidiales Helicobasidiales Kondoaceae Microbotryomycetes Mixiales Mixiomycetes Naohideales Pachnocybales Pucciniomycetes Pucciniomycotina Spiculogloeales Ustilaginomycotina 


Basidiomycetes Fungal systematics Molecular phylogenetics Ultrastructure Taxonomy 



We thank Magdalena Wagner-Eha and Jacqueline Götze for technical assistance, Robert Bandoni, Günter Deml, Ewald Langer, Bernhard Müller, Karl-Heinz Rexer, Junta Sugiyama, and Kálmán Vánky for providing specimens, and Roland Kirschner and Stefanie Köber for providing DNA sequences. We gratefully acknowledge the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Association) that has supported research on heterobasidiomycetes in Tübingen over the past 30 years in many projects.


  1. Baker GE (1936) A study of the genus Helicogloea. Ann Mo Bot Gard 23:69–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandoni RJ (1984) The Tremellales and Auriculariales: an alternative classification. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan 25:489–530Google Scholar
  3. Bandoni RJ (1995) Dimorphic heterobasidiomycetes: taxonomy and parasitism. Stud Mycol 38:13–27Google Scholar
  4. Bauer R (1987) Uredinales-germination of basidiospores and pycnospores. Stud Mycol 30:111–125Google Scholar
  5. Bauer R (2004) Basidiomycetous interfungal cellular interactions—a synopsis. In: Agerer R, Piepenbring M, Blanz P (eds) Frontiers in basidiomycote mycology. IHW-Verlag, Eching, pp 325–337Google Scholar
  6. Bauer R, Oberwinkler F (1986) Experimentell-ontogenetische Untersuchungen an Phragmobasidien. Z Mykol 52:259–270Google Scholar
  7. Bauer R, Oberwinkler F (1990a) Meiosis, spindle pole body cycle and taxonomy of the heterobasidiomycete Pachnocybe ferruginea. Plant Syst Evol 172:241–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bauer R, Oberwinkler F (1990b) Direct cytoplasm–cytoplasm connection: an unusual host–parasite interaction of the tremelloid mycoparasite Tetragoniomyces uliginosus. Protoplasma 154:157–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bauer R, Oberwinkler F (1990c) Haustoria of the mycoparasitic heterobasidiomycete Christiansenia pallida. Cytologia 55:419–424Google Scholar
  10. Bauer R, Oberwinkler F (1991a) The symplechosome: a unique organelle of some basidiomycetes. Bot Acta 104:93–97Google Scholar
  11. Bauer R, Oberwinkler F (1991b) The colacosomes: new structures at the host–parasite interface of a mycoparasitic basidiomycete. Bot Acta 104:53–57Google Scholar
  12. Bauer R, Oberwinkler F (1994) Meiosis, septal pore architecture and systematic position of the heterobasidiomycetous fern parasite Herpobasidium filicinum. Can J Bot 72:1229–1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bauer R, Berbee ML, Oberwinkler F (1991) An electron microscopic study of meiosis and the spindle pole cycle in the smut fungus Sphacelotheca polygoni-serrulati. Can J Bot 69:245–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bauer R, Oberwinkler F, McLaughlin DJ (1992) Meiosis, spindle pole body cycle and basidium ontogeny in the heterobasidiomycete Agaricostilbum pulcherrimum. Syst Appl Microbiol 15:259–274Google Scholar
  15. Bauer R, Mendgen K, Oberwinkler F (1995) Septal pore apparatus of the smut Ustacystis waldsteiniae. Mycologia 87:18–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bauer R, Oberwinkler F, Vánky K (1997) Ultrastructural markers and systematics in smut fungi and allied taxa. Can J Bot 75:1273–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bauer R, Begerow D, Oberwinkler F, Piepenbring M, Berbee ML (2001) Ustilaginomycetes. In: McLaughlin DJ, McLaughlin EG, Lemke PA (eds) Mycota VII, Part B: systematics and evolution. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 57–83Google Scholar
  18. Bauer R, Begerow D, Oberwinkler F, Marvanová L (2003) Classicula: the teleomorph of Naiadella fluitans. Mycologia 95:756–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bauer R, Lutz M, Oberwinkler F (2004) Tuberculina-rusts: a unique basidiomycetous interfungal cellular interaction with horizontal nuclear transfer. Mycologia 96:960–967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Begerow D, Bauer R, Oberwinkler F (1997) Phylogenetic studies on the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA of smut fungi and related taxa. Can J Bot 75:2045–2056Google Scholar
  21. Begerow D, Bauer R, Oberwinkler F (2002) The Exobasidiales: an evolutionary hypothesis. Mycol Prog 1:187–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Berbee ML, Bauer R, Oberwinkler F (1991) The spindle pole cycle, meiosis, and basidial ontogeny of the smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum. Can J Bot 69:1795–1803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Blanz PA, Gottschalk M (1984) A comparison of 5S ribosomal RNA nucleotide sequences from smut fungi. Syst Appl Microbiol 5:518–524Google Scholar
  24. Boehm EWA, McLaughlin DJ (1989) Mitosis and ultrastructure in Eocronartium muscicola: meiosis and basidial development. Mycologia 81:98–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bourett TM, McLaughlin DJ (1986) Mitosis and septum formation in the basidiomycete Helicobasidium mompa. Can J Bot 64:130–145Google Scholar
  26. Couch JN (1938) The genus Septobasidium. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel HillGoogle Scholar
  27. Cummins GB, Hiratsuka Y (2003) Illustrated genera of rust fungi. APS, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  28. Deml G (1987) Taxonomy of phragmobasidial smut fungi. Stud Mycol 30:127–135Google Scholar
  29. Edgar RC (2004) MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Res 32:1792–1797PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fell JW, Boekhout T, Fonseca A, Sampaio JP (2001) Basidiomycetous yeasts. In: McLaughlin DJ, McLaughlin EG, Lemke PA (eds) Mycota VII, Part B: systematics and evolution. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 3–35Google Scholar
  31. Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39:783–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fonseca Á, Sampaio JP, Inácio J, Fell JW (2000) Emendation of the basidiomycetous yeast genus Kondoa and the description of Kondoa aeria sp. nov. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 77:293–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gäumann E (1959) Die Rostpilze Mitteleuropas. Kommissionsverlag Buchdruckerei Buechler, BernGoogle Scholar
  34. Gargas A, Taylor JW (1992) Polymerase chain reaction primers for amplifying and sequencing nuclear 18S rDNA from lichenized fungi. Mycologia 84:589–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gascuel O (1997) BIONJ: an improved version of the NJ algorithm based on a simple model of sequence data. Mol Biol Evol 14:685–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gottschalk M, Blanz PA (1985) Untersuchungen an 5S ribosomalen Ribonucleinsäuren als Beitrag zur Klärung von Systematik und Phylogenie der Basidiomyceten. Z Mykol 51:205–243Google Scholar
  37. Greuter W, McNeill J, Barrie FR, Burdet HM, Demoulin V, Filgueiras TS, Nicolson DH, Silva PC, Skog JE, Trehane P, Turland NJ, Hawksworth DL (eds) (2000) International code of botanical nomenclature. Koeltz, KönigsteinGoogle Scholar
  38. Guindon S, Gascuel O (2003) A simple, fast and accurate method to estimate large phylogenies by maximum-likelihood. Syst Biol 52:696–704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F (2001) MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 17:754–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ingold CT (1979) Advances in the study of so-called aquatic hyphomycetes. Am J Bot 66:218–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ingold CT (1992) Conidia in Helicogloea and Saccoblastia in relation to taxonomy. Mycol Res 96:734–736Google Scholar
  42. Jeffries P, Young TWK (1994) Interfungal parasitic relationships. CAB, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  43. Katoh K, Misawa K, Kuma K, Miyata T (2002) MAFFT: a novel method for rapid multiple sequence alignment based on fast Fourier transform. Nucleic Acids Res 30:3059–3066PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kirk PM, Cannon PF, David JC, Stalpers JA (2001) Ainsworth & Bisby’s dictionary of the fungi, 9th edn. CAB, EghamGoogle Scholar
  45. Kirschner R (2004) Sporodochial anamorphs of species of Helicogloea. In: Agerer R, Piepenbring M, Blanz P (eds) Frontiers in basidiomycote mycology. IHW-Verlag, Eching, pp 165–178Google Scholar
  46. Kirschner R, Oberwinkler F (2000) A new species of Colacogloea with zygoconidia. Sydowia 52:195–203Google Scholar
  47. Kirschner R, Bauer R, Oberwinkler F (1999) Atractocolax, a new heterobasidiomycetous genus based on a species vectored by conifericolous bark beetles. Mycologia 91:538–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kirschner R, Bauer R, Oberwinkler F (2001) Colacosiphon: a new genus described for a mycoparasitic fungus. Mycologia 93:634–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kleven NL, McLaughlin DJ (1989) A light and electron microscopic study of the developmental cycle in the basidiomycete Pachnocybe ferruginea. Can J Bot 67:1336–1348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kramer CL (1958) A new genus in the Protomycetaceae. Mycologia 50:916–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kropp BR, Corden ME (1986) Morphology and taxonomy of Pachnocybe ferruginea. Mycologia 78:334–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lee C, Grasso C, Sharlow M (2002) Multiple sequence alignment using partial order graphs. Bioinformatics 18:452–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lee MSY (2001) Unalignable sequences and molecular evolution. Trends Ecol Evol 16:681–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Littlefield LJ, Heath MC (1979) Ultrastructure of rust fungi. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. Lutz M, Bauer R, Begerow D, Oberwinkler F, Triebel D (2004a) Tuberculina: rust relatives attack rusts. Mycologia 96:614–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lutz M, Bauer R, Begerow D, Oberwinkler F (2004b) Tuberculina-Thanatophytum/Rhizoctonia crocorum-Helicobasidium: a unique mycoparasitic–phytoparasitic life strategy. Mycol Res 108:227–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lutz M, Bauer R, Begerow D, Oberwinkler F (2004c) Tuberculina-Helicobasidium: infection experiments and molecular analyses prove host specifity of the Tuberculina-stage and reveal unexpected diversity within the group. Mycologia 96:1316–1329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Marvanová L, Bandoni RJ (1987) Naiadella fluitans gen. et sp. nov.: a conidial basidiomycete. Mycologia 79:578–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Marvanová L, Suberkropp K (1990) Camptobasidium hydrophilum and its anamorph, Crucella subtilis, a new heterobasidiomycete from stream. Mycologia 82:208–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McCully EK, Robinow CF (1972a) Mitosis in heterobasidiomycetous yeasts. II. Rhodosporidium sp. (Rodotorula glutinis) and Aessosporon salmonicolor (Sporobolomyces salmonicolor). J Cell Sci 11:1–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. McCully EK, Robinow CF (1972b) Mitosis in heterobasidiomycetous yeasts. I. Leucosporidium scottii (Candida scottii). J Cell Sci 10:857–881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. McLaughlin DJ (1987) Ultrastructure and phylogeny in some auriculariaceous heterobasidiomycetes. Fourteenth International Botanical Congress, Sydney, p 156Google Scholar
  63. Mendgen K, Welter K, Scheffold F, Knauf-Beiter G (1991) High pressure freezing of rust infected plant leaves. In: Mendgen K, Leseman DE (eds) Electron microscopy of plant pathogens. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 31–42Google Scholar
  64. Mix AJ (1947) Taphrina osmundae Nishida and Taphrina higginsii sp. nov. Mycologia 39:71–76CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Morgenstern B (1999) DIALIGN 2: improvement of the segment-to-segment approach to multiple sequence alignment. Bioinformatics 15:211–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Müller B (1989) Chemotaxonomische Untersuchungen an Basidiomycetenhefen. Dissertation, Eberhard-Karls-Universität, TübingenGoogle Scholar
  67. Nagler A, Bauer R, Berbee M, Vánky K, Oberwinkler F (1989) Light and electron microscopic studies of Schroeteria delastrina and S. poeltii. Mycologia 81:884–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nishida H, Katsuhiko A, Ando Y, Hirata A, Sugiyama (1995) Mixia osmundae: transfer from the Ascomycota to the Basidiomycota based on evidence from molecules and morphology. Can J Bot 73 (Suppl 1):S660–S666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Oberwinkler F (1977) Das neue System der Basidiomyceten. In: Frey W, Hurka H, Oberwinkler F (eds) Beiträge zur Biologie der niederen Pflanzen. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart, pp 59–105Google Scholar
  70. Oberwinkler F (1978) Was ist ein Basidiomycet? Z Mykol 44:13–29Google Scholar
  71. Oberwinkler F (1982) The significance of the morphology of the basidium in the phylogeny of basidiomycetes. In: Wells K, Wells EK (eds) Basidium and basidiocarp. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 9–35Google Scholar
  72. Oberwinkler F (1985) Zur Evolution und Systematik der Basidiomyceten. Bot Jahrb Syst Pflanzengesch Pflanzengeogr 107:541–580Google Scholar
  73. Oberwinkler F (1987) Heterobasidiomycetes with ontogenetic yeast stages—systematic and phylogenetic aspects. Stud Mycol 30:61–74Google Scholar
  74. Oberwinkler F (1990) New genera of auricularioid heterobasidiomycetes. Reports of the Tottori Mycological Institute 28:113–127Google Scholar
  75. Oberwinkler F (1993) Diversity and phylogenetic importance of tropical heterobasidiomycetes. In: Isaac S, Frankland JC, Watling R, Whalley AJS (eds) Aspects of tropical mycology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 121–147Google Scholar
  76. Oberwinkler F, Bandoni RJ (1982) A taxonomic survey of the gasteroid, auricularioid heterobasidiomycetes. Can J Bot 60:1726–1750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Oberwinkler F, Bandoni RJ (1984) Herpobasidium and allied genera. Trans Br Mycol Soc 83:639–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Oberwinkler F, Bauer R (1989) The systematics of gasteroid, auricularioid heterobasidiomycetes. Sydowia 41:224–256Google Scholar
  79. Oberwinkler F, Bauer R (1990) Cryptomycocolax: a new mycoparasitic heterobasidiomycete. Mycologia 82:671–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Oberwinkler F, Bandoni RJ, Bauer R, Deml G, Kisimova-Horovitz L (1984) The life history of Christiansenia pallida, a dimorphic, mycoparasitic heterobasidiomycete. Mycologia 76:9–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Oberwinkler F, Bauer R, Bandoni RJ (1990a) Colacogloea: a new genus in the auricularioid heterobasidiomycetes. Can J Bot 68:2531–2536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Oberwinkler F, Bauer R, Bandoni RJ (1990b) Heterogastridiales: a new order of basidiomycetes. Mycologia 82:48–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Oberwinkler F, Bauer R, Tschen J (1999) The mycoparasitism of Platygloea bispora. Kew Bull 54:763–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. O’Donnell KL, McLaughlin DJ (1981a) Ultrastructure of meiosis in the hollyhock rust fungus Puccinia malvacearum I. Prophase I–Prometaphase I. Protoplasma 108:225–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. O’Donnell KL, McLaughlin DJ (1981b) Ultrastructure of meiosis in the hollyhock rust fungus Puccinia malvacearum II. Metaphase I–telophase I. Protoplasma 108:245–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. O’Donnell KL, McLaughlin DJ (1981c) Ultrastructure of meiosis in the hollyhock rust fungus Puccinia malvacearum III. Interphase I–interphase II. Protoplasma 108:265–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. O’Donnell KL, McLaughlin DJ (1984) Ultrastructure of meiosis in Ustilago maydis. Mycologia 76:468–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. O’Donnell KL (1993) Fusarium and its relatives. In: Reynolds DR, Taylor JW (eds) The fungal holomorph: mitotic, meiotic, and pleomorphic speciation in fungal systematics. CAB, Wallingford, pp 225–233Google Scholar
  89. Olive LS (1947) Notes on the Tremellales in Georgia. Mycologia 39:90–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Posada D, Crandall KA (1998) Modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 14:817–818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Prillinger H, Oberwinkler F, Umile C, Tlachac K, Bauer R, Dörfler C, Taufratzhofer E (1993) Analysis of cell wall carbohydrates (neutral sugars) from ascomycetous and basidiomycetous yeasts with and without derivatization. J Gen Appl Microbiol 39:1–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Roberts P (1994) Zygogloea gemellipara: an auricularioid parasite of Myxarium nucleatum. Mycotaxon 52:241–246Google Scholar
  93. Roberts P (1996) Heterobasidiomycetes from Majorca & Cabrera (Balearic Islands). Mycotaxon 60:111–123Google Scholar
  94. Roberts P (1997) New heterobasidiomycetes from Great Britain. Mycotaxon 63:195–216Google Scholar
  95. Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Sampaio JP (2004) Diversity, phylogeny and classification of basidiomycetous yeasts. In: Agerer R, Piepenbring M, Blanz P (eds) Frontiers in basidiomycote mycology. IHW-Verlag, Eching, pp 49–80Google Scholar
  97. Sampaio JP, Bauer R, Begerow D, Oberwinkler F (1999) Occultifur externus sp. nov., a new species of simple-septate auricularioid heterobasidiomycete from plant litter in Portugal. Mycologia 91:1094–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sampaio JP, Gadanho M, Bauer R, Weiβ M (2003) Taxonomic studies in the Microbotryomycetidae: Leucosporidium golubevii sp. nov. and the new orders Leucosporidiales and Sporidiobolales. Mycol Prog 2:53–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sampaio JP, Golubev WI, Fell JW, Gadanho M, Golubev NW (2004) Curvibasidium cygneicollum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum sp. nov., novel taxa in the Microbotryomycetidae (Urediniomycetes), and their relationship with Rhodotorula fujisanensis and Rhodotorula nothofagi. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1401–1407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Scorzetti G, Fell JW, Fonseca A, Statzell-Tallman A (2002) Systematics of basidiomycetous yeasts: a comparison of large subunit D1/D2 and internal transcribed spacer rDNA regions. FEMS Yeast Res 2:495–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Suh SO, Hirata A, Sugiyama J, Komagata K (1993) Septal ultrastructure of basidiomycetous yeasts and their taxonomic implications with observations on the ultrastructure of Erythrobasidium hasegawianum and Sympodiomycopsis paphiopedili. Mycologia 85:30–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Swann EC, Taylor JW (1993) Higher taxa of basidiomycetes: an 18S rRNA gene perspective. Mycologia 85:923–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Swann EC, Taylor JW (1995) Phylogenetic diversity of yeast-producing basidiomycetes. Mycol Res 99:1205–1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Swann EC, Frieders EM, McLaughlin DJ (1999) Microbotryum, Kriegeria and the changing paradigm in basidiomycete classification. Mycologia 91:51–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Swann EC, Frieders EM, McLaughlin DJ (2001) Urediniomycetes. In: McLaughlin DJ, McLaughlin EG, Lemke PA (eds) Mycota VII, Part B: systematics and evolution. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 37–56Google Scholar
  106. Swofford DL (2002) PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods). Version 4.0b10, Sinauer, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  107. Takashima M, Hamamoto M, Nakase T (2000) Taxonomic significance of fucose in the class Urediniomycetes: distribution of fucose in cell wall and phylogeny of urediniomycetous yeasts. Syst Appl Microbiol 23:63–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Weiβ M, Bauer R, Begerow D (2004) Spotlights on heterobasidiomycetes. In: Agerer R, Piepenbring M, Blanz P (eds) Frontiers in basidiomycote mycology. IHW-Verlag, Eching, pp 7–48Google Scholar
  109. Wells K (1970) Light and electron microscopic studies of Ascobolus stercorarius. I. Nuclear divisions in the ascus. Mycologia 62:761–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wells K, Bandoni RJ (2001) Heterobasidiomycetes. In: McLaughlin DJ, McLaughlin EG, Lemke PA (eds) Mycota VII, Part B: systematics and evolution. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 85–120Google Scholar
  111. Welter K, Müller M, Mendgen K (1988) The hyphae of Uromyces appendiculatus within the leaf tissue after high pressure freezing and freeze substitution. Protoplasma 147:91–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wolters J (1987) Phylogenie der Organismen und Zellorganellen–kladistische Strukturanalysen ribosomaler RNAs. Dissertation, Freie Universität Berlin, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  113. Zugmaier W, Bauer R, Oberwinkler F (1994) Mycoparasitism of some Tremella species. Mycologia 86:49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© German Mycological Society and Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Bauer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dominik Begerow
    • 1
  • José Paulo Sampaio
    • 2
  • Michael Weiβ
    • 1
  • Franz Oberwinkler
    • 1
  1. 1.Universität Tübingen, Botanisches Institut, Lehrstuhl für Spezielle Botanik und MykologieTübingenGermany
  2. 2.Centro de Recursos Microbiológicos, Secção Autónoma de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências e TecnologiaUniversidade Nova de LisboaCaparicaPortugal

Personalised recommendations