Mycological Progress

, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 297–314 | Cite as

Monophyletic groups within the Parmeliaceae identified by ITS rDNA, β-tubulin and GAPDH sequences

  • Arne ThellEmail author
  • Tassilo Feuerer
  • Ingvar Kärnefelt
  • Leena Myllys
  • Soili Stenroos


Phylogenetic relationships within the Parmeliaceae are analysed cladistically on the basis of DNA characters from partial β-tubulin, partial glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and ITS sequences. 100 taxa representing 73 of the 88 genera currently recognised are included in the analyses. Eight monophyletic groups including two or more genera were identified in the tree calculated from the combined data matrix. Three of the groups cover almost half of the species of the family. The largest and strongest supported group includes seven genera with their distribution centres in the Southern Hemisphere: Almbornia, Chondropsis, Karoowia, Namakwa, Neofuscelia, Xanthomaculina and Xanthoparmelia. The second group is a clade of four essentially tropical genera: Concamerella, Flavoparmelia, Parmotrema and Rimelia. The third large group with strong support is the core of cetrarioid lichens, distributed primarily in cold areas of the Northern Hemisphere. The genus Parmelia sensu Hale is not closely related with most of its segregates. One new combination, Cetrariella commixta, is proposed. Coelopogon abraxas is reported from South America for the first time.


Northern Hemisphere Phylogenetic Relationship Southern Hemisphere Strong Support Data Matrix 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acharius E (1803) Methodus lichenum. Stockholm. 394 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Acharius E (1810) Lichenographia universalis. Göttingen. 689 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Adanson M (1763) Familles des Plantes. Paris.Google Scholar
  4. Brodo IM, Sharnoff SD, Sharnoff S (2002) Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven. 795 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Brodo IM, Hawksworth DL (1977) Alectoria and allied genera in North America. — Opera Botanica 42: 1–164.Google Scholar
  6. Brusse FA, Kärnefelt I (1991) The new Southern Hemisphere lichen genus Coelopogon (Lecanorales, Ascomycotina), with a new lichen species from southern Africa. — Mycotaxon 42: 35–41.Google Scholar
  7. Clauzade G, Roux C (1985) Likenoj de okcidenta Europo. Royan, France. 893 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Coppins BJ (2002) Checklist of lichens of Great Britain and Ireland. British Lichen Society, London.Google Scholar
  9. Crespo A, Blanco O, Hawksworth DL (2001) The potential of mitochondrial DNA for establishing phylogeny and stabilising generic concepts in the parmelioid lichens. — Taxon 50: 807–819.Google Scholar
  10. Crespo A, Cubero OF (1998) A molecular approach to the circumscription and evaluation of some genera segregated from Parmelia s. lat. — Lichenologist 30: 369–380.Google Scholar
  11. Culberson WL, Culberson CF (1965) Asahinea, a new genus in the Parmeliaceae. — Brittonia 17: 182–190.Google Scholar
  12. Culberson WL, Culberson CF (1968) The lichen genera Cetrelia and Platismatia (Parmeliaceae). — Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 34: 449–558.Google Scholar
  13. Divakar PK, Upreti DK (2003) New species and new records of Parmotrema (Parmeliaceae) from India. — Lichenologist 35: 21–26.Google Scholar
  14. Divakar PK, Upreti DK, Elix JA (2001) New species and new records in the lichen family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycotina) from India. — Mycotaxon 80: 355–362.Google Scholar
  15. Eliasaro S, Adler MT (1997) Two new species and new reports in the Parmeliaceae sensu stricto (lichenized Ascomycotina). — Mycotaxon 63: 49–55.Google Scholar
  16. Elix JA (1979) A taxonomic revision of the lichen genus Hypogymnia in Australasia. — Brunonia 2: 175–245.Google Scholar
  17. Elix JA (1993) Progress in the generic delimitation of Parmelia sensu lato lichens (Ascomycotina: Parmeliaceae). — Bryologist 96: 359–383.Google Scholar
  18. Elix JA (1995) New species in the lichen family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycotina) from Australasia and Oceania. — Mycotaxon 56: 231–241.Google Scholar
  19. Elix JA (1996) New species in the lichen family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycotina) from Australasia and Malaysia. — Mycotaxon 59: 407–417.Google Scholar
  20. Elix JA (1997) Further new species in the lichen family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycotina) from Australasia. — Mycotaxon 65: 481–491.Google Scholar
  21. Elix JA (2003a) New species and new records of Xanthoparmelia (lichenized Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae) from western Australia. — Lichenologist 35: 291–299.Google Scholar
  22. Elix JA (2003b) The lichen genus Paraparmelia, a synonym of Xanthoparmelia (Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae). — Mycotaxon 87: 395–403.Google Scholar
  23. Elix JA, Hale ME (1987) Canomaculina, Myelochroa, Parmelinella, Parmelinopsis and Parmotremopsis, five new genera in the Parmeliaceae (lichenized Ascomycotina). — Mycotaxon 29: 233–244.Google Scholar
  24. Elix JA, Hale ME, Verdon D (1986) Canoparmelia, Paraparmelia and Relicinopsis, three new genera in the Parmeliaceae. — Mycotaxon 27: 372–383.Google Scholar
  25. Elix JA, James P (1992) Hypogymniaceae. In: Flora of Australia 54, lichens–Introduction, Lecanorales 1, p. 200.Google Scholar
  26. Elix JA, Louwhoff SHJJ, Molina M del C (2000) Two new species of Xanthoparmelia (lichenized Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae) from Australia containing norlobaridone. — Mycotaxon 74(2): 499–503.Google Scholar
  27. Elix JA, Schumm F (2001) A new species and new records in the lichen family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycotina) from the Philippines. — Mycotaxon 79: 253–260.Google Scholar
  28. Eriksson OE, Hawksworth DL (1985) Outline of the ascomycetes-1985. — Systema Ascomycetum 4: 1–79Google Scholar
  29. Eriksson OE, Hawksworth DL (1991) Outline of the ascomycetes-1990. — Systema Ascomycetum 9: 39–271.Google Scholar
  30. Eriksson OE, Hawksworth DL (1998) Outline of the ascomycetes-1998. — Systema Ascomycetum 16: 83–296.Google Scholar
  31. Eschweiler FG (1824) Systema lichenum, genera exhibens rite distincta, pluribus novis adaucta. Norimbergiae. 26 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. Esslinger TL (1977) A chemosystematic revision of the brown Parmeliae. — Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 42: 1–211.Google Scholar
  33. Esslinger TL (1978) A new status for the brown Parmeliae. — Mycotaxon 7: 45–54.Google Scholar
  34. Esslinger TL (1981) Almbornia, a new lichen genus from South Africa. — Nordic Journal of Botany 1: 125–127.Google Scholar
  35. Farris JS (2000) xac. MS-DOS program for parsimony jackknifing. Distributed by the author.Google Scholar
  36. Farris JS, Albert VA, Källersjö N, Lipscomb D, Kluge AG (1996) Parsimony jackknifing outperforms neighbour-joining. — Cladistics 12: 99–124.Google Scholar
  37. Feuerer T (1998) E. Vainio’s contribution to the knowledge of the Parmeliaceae. — In: Marcelli M. P. and Ahti, T. (eds.): Recollecting Edvard August Vainio. CETESB, Sao Paulo, Brazil, pp. 47–60.Google Scholar
  38. Galloway DJ (1992) Checklist of New Zealand Lichens. DSIR Land Resources Scientific Report, No. 26, DSIR Land Resources, Christchurch. 58 pp.Google Scholar
  39. Gardes M, Bruns TD (1993) ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes. Application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. — Molecular Ecology 2: 113–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gilbert D (1993) SeqApp, a biological sequence editor and analysis program. Indiana University, Bloomington.Google Scholar
  41. Guzow-Krzemiska B, Wegrzyn B (2003) A preliminary study on the phylogeny of the genus Melanelia using nuclear large sub-unit ribosomal DNA sequences. — Lichenologist 35: 83–86.Google Scholar
  42. Hale ME (1974a) New combinations in the lichen genus Parmotrema Massalongo. — Phytologia 28: 334–339.Google Scholar
  43. Hale ME (1974b) Bulbothrix, Parmelina, Relicina and Xanthoparmelia, four new genera in the Parmeliaceae. — Phytologia 28: 479–490.Google Scholar
  44. Hale ME (1974c) Delimitation of the lichen genus Hypotrachyna (Vainio) Hale. — Phytologia 28: 340–341.Google Scholar
  45. Hale ME (1976) Synopsis of a new lichen genus, Everniastrum Hale (Parmeliaceae). — Mycotaxon 3: 345–353.Google Scholar
  46. Hale ME (1983) The biology of lichens. 3rd ed. Edward Arnold, London.Google Scholar
  47. Hale ME (1984) Flavopunctelia, a new genus in the Parmeliaceae (Ascomycotina). — Mycotaxon 20: 681–682.Google Scholar
  48. Hale ME (1985) Xanthomaculina Hale, a new genus in the Parmeliaceae (Ascomycotina). — Lichenologist 17: 255–265.Google Scholar
  49. Hale ME (1986) Arctoparmelia, a new genus in the Parmeliaceae (Ascomycotina). — Mycotaxon 25: 251–254.Google Scholar
  50. Hale ME (1987) Flavoparmelia, a new genus in the lichen family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycotina). — Mycotaxon 25: 603–605.Google Scholar
  51. Hale ME (1988) Namakwa, a new lichen genus in the Parmeliaceae. (Ascomycotina). — Mycotaxon 32: 169–174.Google Scholar
  52. Hale ME (1989) A monograph of the lichen genus Karoowia Hale (Ascomycotina: Parmeliaceae). — Mycotaxon 35(1): 177–198.Google Scholar
  53. Hale ME (1989) A new lichen genus, Psiloparmelia Hale (Ascomycotina: Parmeliaceae). — Mycotaxon 35(1): 41–44.Google Scholar
  54. Hale ME, Fletcher A (1990) Rimelia Hale & Flechter, a new lichen genus (Ascomycotina: Parmeliaceae). — The Bryologist 93(1): 23–29.Google Scholar
  55. Hawksworth DL, Crespo A (2002) Proposal to conserve the name Xanthoparmelia against Chondropsis nom. cons. (Parmeliaceae). — Taxon 51: 807.Google Scholar
  56. Hawksworth DL, James PW, Coppins BJ (1980) Checklist of British lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi. — Lichenologist 12: 1–115.Google Scholar
  57. Henssen A, Jahns HM (1973 [‘1974’]) Lichenes. Eine Einführung in die Flechtenkunde. G. Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  58. Hillmann J (1936) Parmeliaceae. In: Rabenhorst, G. L: Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. 2nd, Band 9. Die Flechten, Abteilung 5. Borntraeger∖Leipzig, pp. 1–309.Google Scholar
  59. Hoffmann GF (1794) Plantae lichenosae. Descripto et Adumbratio plantarum e classe cryptogamica Linnai quae Lichenes dicuntur. II. Leipzig.Google Scholar
  60. Huang X (1992) A contiguous assembly program based on sensitive detection of fragment overlaps. — Genomics 14: 18–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kärnefelt I, Emanuelsson K, Thell A (1998) Anatomy and systematics of usneoid genera in the Parmeliaceae. — Nova Hedwigia 67: 71–92.Google Scholar
  62. Kärnefelt I, Thell A (1992) The evaluation of characters in lichenized families, examplified with the Alectoriaceae and some genera in the Parmeliaceae. — Plant Systematics and Evolution 180: 181–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Keissler KV (1959) Usneaceae. In: Rabenhorst, G. L. Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. 2nd, Band 5. Die Flecthen, Abteilung 4. Teil. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft. Leipzig, pp. 481–640.Google Scholar
  64. Kluge AG (1989) A concern for evidence and a phylogentic hypothesis of relationships among Epicrates (Boidae, Serpentes). — Systematic Zoology 38: 7–25.Google Scholar
  65. Kroken S, Taylor JW (2000) Phylogenetic species, reproductive mode, and specificity of the green alga Trebouxia forming lichens with the fungal genus Letharia. — Bryologist 103: 645–660.Google Scholar
  66. Kurokawa S, Moon KH (2000) New species and new records in Hypotrachyna (Parmeliaceae). — Bulletin of the Botanic Gardens of Toyama 5: 9–24.Google Scholar
  67. Lindemuth R, Wirtz N, Lumbsch HT (2001) Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial rDNA sequences supports the view that loculoascomycetes (Ascomycota) are not monophyletic. — Mycological Research 105: 1176–1181.Google Scholar
  68. Louwhoff SHJJ, Elix JA (2000) Five new species in the lichen family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycotina) from Grande Terre, New Caledonia. — Mycotaxon 75: 195–203.Google Scholar
  69. Lumbsch HT (1997) Bulbothricella amazonensis is a polysporous member of Bulbothrix (Parmeliaceae). — Mycotaxon 64: 225–228.Google Scholar
  70. Lumbsch HT, Kothe HW, Elix JA (1988) Resurrection of the lichen genus Pleurosticta Petrak (Parmeliaceae: Ascomycotina). — Mycotaxon 33: 447–455.Google Scholar
  71. Lumbsch HT, Wirtz N, Lindemuth R, Schmitt I (2002) Higher level phylogenetic relationships of euascomycetes (Pezizomycotina) inferred from a combined analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data. — Mycological Progress 1: 57–70.Google Scholar
  72. Marcano V, Mohali S, Palacios-Prü E, Morales Méndez A (1996) The lichen genus Bulbothricella, a new segregate in the Parmeliaceae from Venezuela. — Lichenologist 28(5): 421–430.Google Scholar
  73. Marcelli M, Ribeiro CH (2002) Twenty-one new species of Parmeliaceae (lichenized fungi) from southeastern Brazil. — Mitteilungen aus dem Institut für Allgemeine Botanik Hamburg 30–32: 125–155.Google Scholar
  74. Marth C (1996) Anatomisch-morphologische Untersuchungen zum Merkmalsbestand der Parmeliaceae (Ascomycotina, Lecanorales). Dissertation, Fachbereich Biologie, Universität Hamburg. 290 pp.Google Scholar
  75. Mattsson J-E (1993) A monograph of the genus Vulpicida (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycetes). — Opera Botanica 119: 1–61.Google Scholar
  76. Mattsson J-E, Wedin M (1998) Phylogeny of the Parmeliaceae-DNA data versus morphological data. — Lichenologist 30: 463–472.Google Scholar
  77. Mattsson J-E, Wedin M (1999) A re-assessment of the family Alectoriaceae. — Lichenologist 31: 431–440.Google Scholar
  78. Myllys L, Högnabba F, Lohtander K, Thell A, Stenroos S, Hyvönen J (2004) Phylogenetic relationships of Ascomycota focussing on Stereocaulaceae based on simultaneous analysis of β-tubulin, GAPDH and SSU rDNA sequences (submitted ms.)Google Scholar
  79. Myllys L, Lohtander K, Källersjö M, Tehler A (1999) Sequence insertions and ITS data provide congruent information on Roccella canariensis and R. tuberculata (Arthoniales, Euascomycetes) phylogeny. — Molecular Phylogeny and Evololution 12: 295–309.Google Scholar
  80. Myllys L, Lohtander K, Tehler A (2001) b-tubulin, ITS and group I intron sequences challenge the species pair concept in Physcia aipolia and Physcia caesia. — Mycologia 93: 335–343.Google Scholar
  81. Myllys L, Stenroos S, Thell A (2002) Use of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and β-tubulin genes in phylogenetic studies of lichenized fungi. — Lichenologist 34: 237–246.Google Scholar
  82. National Center of Biological information, NCBI, GenBank’s homepage:
  83. Nimis PL (1993) The lichens of Italy. An annotated catalogue. Torino. 897 pp.Google Scholar
  84. Nimis PL (1998) A critical appraisal of modern generic concepts in lichenology. — Lichenologist 30: 427–438.Google Scholar
  85. Nixon KC, Carpenter JM (1996) On simultaneous analysis. — Cladistics 12: 221–242.Google Scholar
  86. Nylander W (1860) Synopsis methodica lichenum I(2). Paris. 141–430, pl. v–viii, pp. v–xxi pp.Google Scholar
  87. Nylander W (1866) Lichenes Lapponiae orientalis (= Prodromi Lichenographiae Scandinaviae Supplementum). — Notiser ur Sällskapet pro Fauna et Flora Fennica Förhandlingar 8: 101–192.Google Scholar
  88. Nylander W (1869) Synopsis methodica lichenum. Paris. 1–64, pl. I pp.Google Scholar
  89. Nylander W (1896) Les lichens des environs de Paris. P. Schmidt/Paris. 142 pp.Google Scholar
  90. Persoh D, Rambold G (2002) Phacopsis-a lichenicolous genus of the Parmeliaceae. — Mycological Progress 1: 43–55.Google Scholar
  91. Poelt J (1974) Classification. Appendix A. In: Ahmadjian, V. and Hale, M. E. (eds.). The lichens: pp. 599–632. Academic Press. New York & London.Google Scholar
  92. Poelt J, Vezda A (1981) Bestimmungsschlüssel Europäischer Flechten. Ergänzungsheft II. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 16, J. Cramer, Vaduz. 390 pp.Google Scholar
  93. Pooprang T, Boonpragob K, Elix JA (1999) New species and new records in the lichen family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycotina) from Thailand. — Mycotaxon 71: 111–127.Google Scholar
  94. Purvis OW, Coppins BJ, Hawksworth DL, James PW, Moore DM (1992) The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum Publications & British Lichen Society, London. 710 pp.Google Scholar
  95. Santesson R (1984) The Lichens of Sweden and Norway. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm. 333 pp.Google Scholar
  96. Santesson R (1993) The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Sweden and Norway. Lund. 240pp.Google Scholar
  97. Satô M (1939) Parmeliales. In: Nakai, T. & Honda, M: Nova Flora Japonica. 5. Sanseido∖Tokyo & Osaka, 87 pp.Google Scholar
  98. Satô M (1954) Enumeration of lichens collected in Tohoku-district, Japan. (1) Anziaceae and Baeomycetaceae. — Bulletin of the Yamagata University, Natural Sciences 3(2): 113–126.Google Scholar
  99. Schaerer E (1850) Enumeratio critica lichenum Europaeorum. Bernae. 327 pp.Google Scholar
  100. Scholz P (2000) Katalog der Flechten und flechtenbewohnenden Pilze Deutschlands. Schriftenreihe für Naturkunde Heft 31, 298 pp. Bundesamt für Naturschutz, Bonn-Bad Godesberg.Google Scholar
  101. Sinha GP, Elix JA (2003) A new species of Hypogymnia and a new record in the lichen family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota) from Sikkim, India. — Mycotaxon 87: 81–84.Google Scholar
  102. Søchting U, Kärnefelt I, Kondratyuk S (2002) Revision of Xanthomendoza (Teloschistaceae, Lecanorales) based on morphology, anatomy, secondary metabolites and molecular data. — Mitteilungen aus dem Institut für Allgemeine Botanik Hamburg 30–32: 225–240.Google Scholar
  103. Stenroos S, Hyvönen J, Myllys L, Thell A, Ahti T (2002) Phylogeny of the genus Cladonia (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycetes) inferred from molecular, morphological, and chemical data. — Cladistics 18: 237–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Swofford DL (1998) PAUP: Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony, version 4.0b. Sunderland. Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
  105. Thell A (1995) A new position of the Cetraria commixta group in Melanelia (Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae). — Nova Hedwigia 60: 407–422.Google Scholar
  106. Thell A (1996) Anatomy and taxonomy of cetrarioid lichens. Summary of doctoral dissertation. Department of Systematic Botany, Lund University.Google Scholar
  107. Thell A, Mattsson JE, Kärnefelt I (1995) Lecanoralean ascus types in the lichenized families Alectoriaceae and Parmeliaceae. — Cryptogamic Botany 5: 120–127.Google Scholar
  108. Thell A, Stenroos S, Feuerer T, Kärnefelt I, Myllys L, Hyvönen J (2002) Phylogeny of cetrarioid lichens (Parmeliaceae) inferred from ITS-and b-tubulin sequences, morphology, anatomy and secondary chemistry. — Mycological Progress 1: 335–354.Google Scholar
  109. Thon ML, Royse DJ (1999) Partial β-tubulin sequences for the evolutionary studies in the Basidiomycota. — Mycologia 91: 468–474.Google Scholar
  110. Tomaselli R (1949) Schema sistematico dei licheni italiani e delle regioni limitrofe. Archivio Botanico 25 [Terza Ser. 9]: 3–47.Google Scholar
  111. Tulasne L-R (1852) Mémoire pour sevir à l’historie organographique et physiologique des lichens. Annales des Sciences Naturelles; Botanique sér 3, 17: 5–128, 153–249 + pl. I–XVI.Google Scholar
  112. Wedin M, Döring H, Mattsson J-E (1999) A multi-gene study of the phylogenetic relationships of the Parmeliaceae. — Mycological Research 103: 1185–1192.Google Scholar
  113. White TJ, Burns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal DNA genes for phylogenetics. In PCR protocols: A guide to methods and applications. In: Innis M., Gelfand, J., Sninsky, J. & White, T., pp. 315–322, Academic Press, Orlando, Florida.Google Scholar
  114. Wirth V (1995) Flechtenflora 2. Auflage, 661 pp. Ulmer Verlag Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  115. Zahlbruckner A (1926) Lichenes. B. Spezieller Teil. In: Engler, A. (ed.): Die Natürlichen Planzenfamilien 2 Auf. 8: 61–270. Leipzig: W. Engelmann.Google Scholar
  116. Zahlbruckner A (1930) Catalogus Lichenum Universalis 6: 1–618. Leipzig.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© DGfM 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arne Thell
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tassilo Feuerer
    • 2
  • Ingvar Kärnefelt
    • 1
  • Leena Myllys
    • 3
  • Soili Stenroos
    • 3
  1. 1.Botanical Museum, Department of the Biological MuseumsLund UniversityLundSweden
  2. 2.Biozentrum Klein Flotbek und Botanischer GartenUniversität HamburgHamburgGermany
  3. 3.Herbarium, Department of BiologyUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland

Personalised recommendations