Mycological Progress

, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp 127–136 | Cite as

Caloplaca erodens [sect. Pyrenodesmia], a new lichen species from Italy with an unusual thallus type

  • Mauro Tretiach
  • Daniela Pinna
  • Martin Grube


Caloplaca erodens is a new species of sect. Pyrenodesmia, characterised by an orbicular, sorediate, bluish-grey thallus which is endolithic but emerges at the periphery with a white, K−, obscurely lobate prothallus. The species is frequent on calcareous outcrops and walls of isolated churches and ruins of the Central Apennines (Sibillini, Gran Sasso), where it may occur in large monospecific populations, from 1000 to 2500 m asl., and is also known from dry sites of the southern Alps. It has been found with apothecia only in the type locality, being predominantly sterile. The reproduction of this lichen is evidently linked to the release of fragments of clusters of photobiont cells and mycobiont hyphae which are continuously exposed with the dissolution of the substratum. Readily distinguished from the apparently similar endolithic C. alociza (which is characterised by numerous apothecia, black, K+ purple prothallus, and esorediate thallus), C. erodens probably belongs to the C. circumalbata complex, whose taxa are always epilithic but have a white, K− prothallus. The phylogenetic position of the new species within sect. Pyrenodesmia as inferred by ITS sequences of the nuclear ribosomal DNA is shortly discussed.


Calcareous Type Locality Phylogenetic Position Lichen Species Photobiont Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arup U, Grube M (1999) Where does Lecanora demissa (Ascomycota, Lecanorales) belong? — Lichenologist 31: 419–430.Google Scholar
  2. Ascaso C, Wierzchos J (1995) Study of the biodeterioration zone between the lichen thallus and the substrate. — Cryptogamic Botany 5: 270–281.Google Scholar
  3. Bachmann E (1919) Der Thallus der Kalkflechten. III. — Nova Acta Leopoldina 100: 1–80.Google Scholar
  4. Blázquez F, Calvet F, Vendrell M (1995) Lichenic alteration and mineralization in calcareous monuments of northeastern Spain. — Geomicrobiology Journal 13: 223–247.Google Scholar
  5. Büdel B, Scheidegger C (1996) Thallus morphology and anatomy. In Nash TH, III (ed) Lichen Biology, pp. 37–64. Cambridge University Press Cambridge.Google Scholar
  6. Carballal R, Paz-Bermúdez G, Sánchez-Biezma MJ, Prieto B (2001) Lichen colonization of coastal churches in Galicia: biodeterioration implications. — International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 47: 157–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clauzade G, Roux C (1985) Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. — Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, N. Ser., No. Spec. 7: 3–893.Google Scholar
  8. Codogno M, Poelt J, Puntillo D (1989) Umbilicaria freyi spec. nova und der Formenkreis von Umbilicaria hirsuta in Europa (Lichenes, Umbilicariaceae). — Plant Systematics and Evolution 165: 55–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cubero OF, Crespo A, Fatehi J, Bridge PD (1999) DNA extraction and PCR amplification method suitable for fresh, herbarium-stored, lichenized, and other fungi. — Plant Systematics and Evolution 216: 243–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Culberson CF, Ammann K (1979) Standard-methode zur Dünnschicht-chromatographie von Flechtensubstanzen. — Herzogia 5: 1–24.Google Scholar
  11. Doppelbaur HW (1959) Studien zur Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte einiger endolithischen pyrenocarpen Flechten. — Planta 53: 246–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Edwards HGM, Edwards KAE, Farwell DW, Lewis IR, Seaward MRD (1994) An approach to stone and fresco lichen biodeterioration through fourier transform raman microscopic investigation of thallus-substratum encrustations. — Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 25: 99–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fry EJ (1922) Some types of endolithic lichens. — Annals of Botany 36: 541–562.Google Scholar
  14. Gehrmann-Janssen CK (1995) On the biopitting corrosion by epilithic and endolithic lichens on carbonate rocks-biophysical and biochemical weathering aspects. PhD Thesis, University of Oldenburg.Google Scholar
  15. Golubic S, Friedman I, Schneider J (1981) The lithobiontic ecological niche, with special reference to micro-organisms. — Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 51: 475–478.Google Scholar
  16. Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. — Nuclear Acids Symposium Series 41: 95–98.Google Scholar
  17. Holmgren PK, Holmgren NH, Barnett LC (1990) Index Herbariorum Part I: The Herbaria of the World. 8th edn. Regnum Vegetabile 120. New York Botanical Garden, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F (2001) MrBayes: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. — Bioinformatics 17: 754–755.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Jatta A (1910) Flora Italica Cryptogama. Pars III: Lichenes. Fasciculus III. Cappelli, Rocca di S. Casciano, pp. 265–460.Google Scholar
  20. Massalongo A (1855) Symmicta Lichenum novorum vel minus cognitorum. Typis Antonellianis, Veronae.Google Scholar
  21. Meyer B, Printzen C (2000) Proposal for a standardized nomenclature and characterization of insoluble lichen pigments. — Lichenologist 32: 571–583.Google Scholar
  22. Nimis PL (2000) Checklist of the Lichens of Italy 2.0. University of Trieste, Dept. of Biology, IN2.0/2 (
  23. Nimis PL, Tretiach M (1999) Itinera Adriatica-Lichens from the eastern part of the Italian Peninsula. — Studia Geobotanica 18: 51–106.Google Scholar
  24. Pinna D, Salvadori O (2000) Endolithic lichens and conservation: an underestimate question. In Fassina V (ed) Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, pp. 513–519.Google Scholar
  25. Pinna D, Salvadori O, Tretiach M (1998) An anatomical investigation of endolithic lichens from the Trieste Karst (NE Italy). — Plant Biosystems 132: 183–195.Google Scholar
  26. Roux C (1981) Étude écologique et phytosociologique des peuplements liquéniques saxicoles-calcicoles du Sud-Est de la France. — Bibliotheca Lichenologica 15: 3–557.Google Scholar
  27. Santesson R (1993) The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Sweden and Norway. SBT, Lund.Google Scholar
  28. Steiner J (1919) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flora Griechenlands. Bearbeitung der anlässlich der zweiten Wiener Universitätsreise im April 1911 in Griechenland gesammelten Pflanzen-C. Lichenes. — Verhandlungen der zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 69: 52–101.Google Scholar
  29. Tretiach M, Modenesi P (1999) Critical notes on the lichen genus Encephalographa A. Massal. (?Hysteriaceae). — Nova Hedwigia 68: 527–544.Google Scholar
  30. Tretiach M, Pinna D (2000) Considerazioni critiche su un taxon endolitico di Caloplaca sect. Pyrenodesmia a distribuzione appenninica. — Notiziario della Società Lichenologica Italiana 13: 21.Google Scholar
  31. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B, Kohlmeyer J (1996) How to prepare truly permanent microscope slides. — Mycologist 10: 107–108.Google Scholar
  32. Werner RG (1974) Mission scientifique dans le Grand Atlas marocain oriental. — Bulletin de l’académie et de la société lorraines des sciences 13: 55–70.Google Scholar
  33. Wetmore CM (1994) The lichen genus Caloplaca in North and Central America with brown or black apothecia. — Mycologia 86: 813–838.Google Scholar
  34. Whitlach RB, Johnson RG (1974) Methods for staining organic matter in marine sediments. — Journal of Sedimentology and Petrography 44: 1310–1312.Google Scholar
  35. Wunder H (1974) Schwarzfrüchtige, saxicole Sippen der Gattung Caloplaca (Lichenes, Teloschistaceae) in Mitteleuropa, dem Mittelmeergebiet und Vorderasien. — Bibliotheca Lichenologica 3: 1–186 + 9 plates.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© DGfM 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di BiologiaUniversità di TriesteTriesteItaly
  2. 2.Soprintendenza per il Patrimonio Storico-ArtisticoBolognaItaly
  3. 3.Institut für BotanikKarl-Franzens-Universität GrazGrazAustria

Personalised recommendations