Real-time reversible data hiding based on multiple histogram modification
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Prediction-error expansion (PEE) has been widely utilized in reversible data hiding (RDH) due to its advantage of high-quality marked image. Recently, a RDH method based on multiple histogram modification (MHM) has been proposed, achieving good performance at low capacity. However, its exhaustive expansion-bin-selection mechanism is time consuming, so that it can only choose a single pair of expansion bins in each histogram for embedding data. As an extension of MHM, a novel RDH scheme for high-capacity embedding is proposed in this paper. In the proposed method, multiple pairs of expansion bins are utilized in each histogram and a greedy search algorithm is designed to determine the nearly optimal expansion bins. The results of experiments demonstrate that the proposed scheme has real-time performance and high-quality marked image, and it outperforms the original MHM-based RDH method and some other state-of-the-art works.
KeywordsReversible data hiding Prediction-error expansion Real-time embedding Greedy algorithm
This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (nos. 61572052, U1736213, and U1636206).
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