A novel gaze-supported multimodal human–computer interaction for ultrasound machines
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Conventional ultrasound (US) machines employ a physical control panel (PCP) as the primary user interface for machine control. This panel is adjacent to the main machine display that requires the operator’s constant attention. The switch of attention to the control panel can lead to interruptions in the flow of the medical examination. Some ultraportable machines also lack many physical controls. Furthermore, the need to both control the US machine and observe the US image may lead the practitioners to adopt unergonomic postures and repetitive motions that can lead to work-related injuries. Therefore, there is a need for a more efficient human–computer interaction method on US machines.
To tackle some of the limitations with the PCP, we propose to merge the PCP into the main screen of the US machines. We propose to use gaze tracking and a handheld controller so that machine control can be achieved via a multimodal human–computer interaction (HCI) method that does not require one to touch the screen or look away from the US image. As a first step, a pop-up menu and measurement tool were designed on top of the US image based on gaze position for efficient machine control.
A comparative study was performed on the BK Medical SonixTOUCH US machine. Participants were asked to complete the task of measuring the area of an ellipse-shaped tumor in a phantom using our gaze-supported HCI method as well as the traditional method. The user study indicates that the task completion time can be reduced by \(20.6\%\) when using our gaze-supported HCI, while no extra workload is imposed on the operators.
Our preliminary study suggests that, when combined with a simple handheld controller, eye gaze tracking can be integrated into the US machine HCI for more efficient machine control.
KeywordsGaze tracking Ultrasound machine Human–computer interaction Multimodal interaction
The authors would like to deliver their thanks to Mrs. Vickie Lessoway, Mrs. Irene Tong, Mr. Zhaoshuo Li, Mr. Neerav Patel for their supports and help during the study. Appreciations should also be delivered to the voluntary participants in the user study. Without your comments and feedback, very limited improvements on the design of our system can be made.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Our research was approved by the Behavioral Research Ethics Board at the University of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, Canada. All procedures performed in our study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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