Deformable multimodal registration for navigation in beating-heart cardiac surgery
Minimally invasive beating-heart surgery is currently performed using endoscopes and without navigation. Registration of intraoperative ultrasound to a preoperative cardiac CT scan is a valuable step toward image-guided navigation.
The registration was achieved by first extracting a representative point set from each ultrasound image in the sequence using a deformable registration. A template shape representing the cardiac chambers was deformed through a hierarchy of affine transformations to match each ultrasound image using a generalized expectation maximization algorithm. These extracted point sets were matched to the CT by exhaustively searching over a large number of precomputed slices of 3D geometry. The result is a similarity transformation mapping the intraoperative ultrasound to preoperative CT.
Complete data sets were acquired for four patients. Transesophageal echocardiography ultrasound sequences were deformably registered to a model of oriented points with a mean error of 2.3 mm. Ultrasound and CT scans were registered to a mean of 3 mm, which is comparable to the error of 2.8 mm expected by merging ultrasound registration with uncertainty of cardiac CT.
The proposed algorithm registered 3D CT with dynamic 2D intraoperative imaging. The algorithm aligned the images in both space and time, needing neither dynamic CT imaging nor intraoperative electrocardiograms. The accuracy was sufficient for navigation in thoracoscopically guided beating-heart surgery.
KeywordsCardiac surgery Surgical navigation Image registration Transesophageal echocardiography Cardiac CT
This work was supported in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada under Grant RGPIN-2018-04430.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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