Simulation study on X-ray phase contrast imaging with dual-phase gratings

  • Johannes BoppEmail author
  • Veronika Ludwig
  • Maria Seifert
  • Georg Pelzer
  • Andreas Maier
  • Gisela Anton
  • Christian Riess
Original Article



Two phase gratings in an X-ray grating interferometers can solve several technical challenges for clinical use of X-ray phase contrast. In this work, we adapt and evaluate this setup design to clinical X-ray sources and detectors in a simulation study.


For a given set of gratings, we optimize the remaining parameter space of a dual-phase grating setup using a numerical wave front simulation. The simulation results are validated with experimentally obtained visibility measurements on a setup with a microfocus tube and a clinical X-ray detector. We then confirm by simulation that the Lau condition for the \(G_0\) grating also holds for two phase gratings. Furthermore, we use a \(G_0\) grating with a fixed period to search for periods of matching phase grating configurations.


Simulated and experimental visibilities agree very well. We show that the Lau condition for a dual-phase grating setup requires the interference patterns of the first phase grating to constructively overlay at the second phase grating. Furthermore, a total of three setup variants for given \(G_{0}\) periods were designed with the simulation, resulting in visibilities between 4.5 and 9.1%.


Dual-phase gratings can be used and optimized for a medical X-ray source and detector. The obtained visibilities are somewhat lower than for other Talbot–Lau interferometers and are a tradeoff between setup length and spatial resolution (or additional phase stepping, respectively). However, these disadvantage appears minor compared to the overall better photon statistics, and the fact that dual-phase grating setups can be expected to scale to higher X-ray energies.


Phase contrast imaging Talbot–Lau Grating-based interferometry Dual-phase grating 



The authors gratefully acknowledge funding by Siemens Healthineers, the German Research Foundation (DFG), and the International Max Planck Research School for the Physics of Light. Funding was provided by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Grant No. 289363653.)

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

This article does not contain patient data.


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Copyright information

© CARS 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pattern Recognition Lab, Department of Computer ScienceFriedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany
  2. 2.Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Department of PhysicsFriedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany

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