Clinical use of an opto-nuclear probe for hybrid sentinel node biopsy guidance: first results
Guidelines advocate the use of combined detection techniques to achieve optimal results for sentinel node (SN) biopsy. The fluorescent and radioactive (dual-) tracer ICG-99mTc-nanocolloid has been shown to facilitate SN biopsy in several indications. It was reported that an opto-nuclear probe permitted the detection of near-infrared fluorescence and gamma-rays. The aim of the current study was to evaluate this device in a large patient group and to test it in both open and laparoscopic surgery implications.
Thirty-three patients scheduled for SN biopsy with the dual-tracer were retrospectively analyzed. Pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy was performed in all patients; in 18 patients (55%), a SPECT/CT scan was also performed. Radioactive and fluorescent signatures in the SNs were assessed in vivo and ex vivo using the opto-nuclear probe.
One or more SNs were identified in all patients (identification rate 100%). Planar lymphoscintigraphic images revealed 95 hot spots that were considered as SNs. This number increased to 103 SNs when SPECT/CT was used. During surgery, 106 SNs were excised. In vivo, the fluorescence mode of the opto-nuclear probe was able to locate 79 SNs (74.5%). When the gamma-ray detection option of the same probe was used, this number increased to 99 SNs (93.3%). Ex vivo analysis revealed fluorescence in 93.3% of the excised nodes and radioactivity in 95.2%.
This study underlines the feasibility of using the dual-tracer/opto-nuclear probe combination for SN resections. The use of the opto-nuclear technology has been extended to laparoscopic surgery. This study also underlines the fluorescence tracing can complement traditional radio-tracing approaches.
KeywordsBi-modal Image-guided surgery Sentinel node Fluorescence SPECT Hybrid Dual-tracer
We deeply thank Eurorad for supporting the clinical evaluation by providing an opto-nuclear device.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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