Analysis of acetabular orientation and femoral anteversion using images of three-dimensional reconstructed bone models

  • Jaeyeong Park
  • Jun-Young Kim
  • Hyun Deok Kim
  • Young Cheol Kim
  • Anna Seo
  • Minkyu Je
  • Jong Uk Mun
  • Bia Kim
  • Il Hyung Park
  • Shin-Yoon Kim
Original Article



Radiographic measurements using two-dimensional (2D) plain radiographs or planes from computed tomography (CT) scans have several drawbacks, while measurements using images of three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed bone models can provide more consistent anthropometric information. We compared the consistency of results using measurements based on images of 3D reconstructed bone models (3D measurements) with those using planes from CT scans (measurements using 2D slice images).


Ninety-six of 561 patients who had undergone deep vein thrombosis-CT between January 2013 and November 2014 were randomly selected. We evaluated measurements using 2D slice images and 3D measurements. The images used for 3D reconstruction of bone models were obtained and measured using \(\hbox {Mimics}^{\mathrm{\textregistered }}\) and \(\hbox {3-Matics}^{\mathrm{\textregistered }}\) (Materialize, Leuven, Belgium).


The mean acetabular inclination, acetabular anteversion and femoral anteversion values on 2D slice images were 42.01\(^{\circ }\), 18.64\(^{\circ }\) and 14.44\(^{\circ }\), respectively, while those using images of 3D reconstructed bone models were 52.80\(^{\circ }\), 14.98\(^{\circ }\) and 17.26\(^{\circ }\). Intra-rater reliabilities for acetabular inclination, acetabular anteversion, and femoral anteversion on 2D slice images were 0.55, 0.81, and 0.85, respectively, while those for 3D measurements were 0.98, 0.99, and 0.98. Inter-rater reliabilities for acetabular inclination, acetabular anteversion and femoral anteversion on 2D slice images were 0.48, 0.86, and 0.84, respectively, while those for 3D measurements were 0.97, 0.99, and 0.97.


The differences between the two measurements are explained by the use of different tools. However, more consistent measurements were possible using the images of 3D reconstructed bone models. Therefore, 3D measurement can be a good alternative to measurement using 2D slice images.


Acetabular orientation Femoral anteversion Images of 3D reconstructed bone models 3D measurements Measurements using 2D slice images 



This research was supported by the following programs: (1) “Establishment program of Industrial infrastructure for custom body treatment” through the Ministry of Trade-Industry-Energy and Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology (Grant No. A011800027) and (2) “Development of ICT-based software platform and service technologies for medical 3D printing applications” through the ICT R&D program of the Information and Communications Technology Promotion/Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (Grant No. B0101-15-1081).

Authors contribution Each author took part in the design of the study and contributed to acquisition of data, analysis, and interpretation of data and agreed to accept equal responsibility for the accuracy of the content of the paper. All authors participated in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content and gave final approval of the version to be submitted and any revised version.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Author Young Cheol Kim has received research grants from the Ministry of Trade-Industry-Energy and Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology. Author Hyun Deok Kim has received research grants from the Institute for Information & Communications Technology Promotion and the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning.

Ethical approval

This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and all procedures in this study were in accordance with ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

11548_2016_1514_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (37.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (pptx 38049 KB)


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Copyright information

© CARS 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaeyeong Park
    • 1
  • Jun-Young Kim
    • 2
  • Hyun Deok Kim
    • 3
  • Young Cheol Kim
    • 3
  • Anna Seo
    • 3
  • Minkyu Je
    • 4
  • Jong Uk Mun
    • 5
  • Bia Kim
    • 6
  • Il Hyung Park
    • 2
  • Shin-Yoon Kim
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Biomedical ScienceKyungpook National UniversityDaeguRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Orthopedic SurgeryKyungpook National University HospitalDaeguRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Institute of Advanced Convergence TechnologyKyungpook National UniversityDaeguRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.School of Electrical EngineeringKorea Advanced Institute of Science and TechnologyDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.Department of Orthopedic SurgeryChangwon Gyeongsang National University HospitalChangwonRepublic of Korea
  6. 6.Department of PsychologyPusan National UniversityPusanRepublic of Korea

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