Automated liver segmentation from a postmortem CT scan based on a statistical shape model
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Automated liver segmentation from a postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) volume is a challenging problem owing to the large deformation and intensity changes caused by severe pathology and/or postmortem changes. This paper addresses this problem by a novel segmentation algorithm using a statistical shape model (SSM) for a postmortem liver.
The location and shape parameters of a liver are directly estimated from a given volume by the proposed SSM-guided expectation–maximization (EM) algorithm without any spatial standardization that might fail owing to the large deformation and intensity changes. The estimated location and shape parameters are then used as a constraint of the subsequent fine segmentation process based on graph cuts. Algorithms with eight different SSMs were trained using 144 in vivo and 32 postmortem livers, and the segmentation algorithm was tested on 32 postmortem livers in a twofold cross validation manner. The segmentation performance is measured by the Jaccard index (JI) between the segmentation result and the true liver label.
The average JI of the segmentation result with the best SSM was 0.8501, which was better compared with the results obtained using conventional SSMs and the results of the previous postmortem liver segmentation with statistically significant difference.
We proposed an algorithm for automated liver segmentation from a PMCT volume, in which an SSM-guided EM algorithm estimated the location and shape parameters of a liver in a given volume accurately. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm using actual postmortem CT volumes.
KeywordsLiver segmentation Postmortem CT Statistical shape model EM algorithm Autopsy imaging Synthesized-based learning
This work was supported in part by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 15J08775 and MEXT KAKENHI Grant Number 26108002.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1975 Helsinki declaration, as revised in 2008(5).
For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
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