A novel method for texture-mapping conoscopic surfaces for minimally invasive image-guided kidney surgery

  • Rowena Ong
  • Courtenay L. Glisson
  • Jessica Burgner-Kahrs
  • Amber Simpson
  • Andrei Danilchenko
  • Ray Lathrop
  • S. Duke Herrell
  • Robert J. WebsterIII
  • Michael Miga
  • Robert L. GallowayEmail author
Original Article



Organ-level registration is critical to image-guided therapy in soft tissue. This is especially important in organs such as the kidney which can freely move. We have developed a method for registration that combines three-dimensional locations from a holographic conoscope with an endoscopically obtained textured surface. By combining these data sources clear decisions as to the tissue from which the points arise can be made.


By localizing the conoscope’s laser dot in the endoscopic space, we register the textured surface to the cloud of conoscopic points. This allows the cloud of points to be filtered for only those arising from the kidney surface. Once a valid cloud is obtained we can use standard surface registration techniques to perform the image-space to physical-space registration. Since our methods use two distinct data sources we test for spatial accuracy and characterize temporal effects in phantoms, ex vivo porcine and human kidneys. In addition we use an industrial robot to provide controlled motion and positioning for characterizing temporal effects.


Our initial surface acquisitions are hand-held. This means that we take approximately 55 s to acquire a surface. At that rate we see no temporal effects due to acquisition synchronization or probe speed. Our surface registrations were able to find applied targets with submillimeter target registration errors.


The results showed that the textured surfaces could be reconstructed with submillimetric mean registration errors. While this paper focuses on kidney applications, this method could be applied to any anatomical structures where a line of sight can be created via open or minimally invasive surgical techniques.


Image-guided surgery Kidney surgery Minimally invasive surgery Conoscopy 



This work is funded in part by the National Institutes of Health: Grant R01 CA162477 from the National Cancer Institute, R01 NS049251 of the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and R44 DK081240 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Rowena Ong, Courtenay Glisson, Jessica Burgner-Kahrs, Amber Simpson, Andrei Danilchenko, Ray Lathrop, Duke Herrell, Robert Webster III, Michael Miga, and Robert L. Galloway declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal participants

The work used ex vivo kidneys obtained post-euthanasia from animals killed under IACUC-approved protocols. No human data were used.


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Copyright information

© CARS 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rowena Ong
    • 1
  • Courtenay L. Glisson
    • 2
  • Jessica Burgner-Kahrs
    • 4
  • Amber Simpson
    • 3
  • Andrei Danilchenko
    • 7
  • Ray Lathrop
    • 5
  • S. Duke Herrell
    • 6
  • Robert J. WebsterIII
    • 5
  • Michael Miga
    • 2
  • Robert L. Galloway
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Medtronic Surgical TechnologiesLouisvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical EngineeringVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  3. 3.Memorial Sloan Cancer CenterNew York CityUSA
  4. 4.Hannover Center of MechatronicsLeibniz Universität HanoverHanoverGermany
  5. 5.Department of Mechanical EngineeringVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  6. 6.Department of Urologic SurgeryVanderbilt Medical CenterNashvilleUSA
  7. 7.MAKO SurgicalFt. LauderdaleUSA

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