Enhanced visualisation for minimally invasive surgery
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Endoscopes used in minimally invasive surgery provide a limited field of view, thus requiring a high degree of spatial awareness and orientation. Attempts at expanding this small, restricted view with previously observed imagery have been made by researchers and is generally known as image mosaicing or dynamic view expansion. For minimally invasive endoscopy, SLAM-based methods have been shown to have potential values but have yet to address effective visualisation techniques.
The live endoscopic video feed is expanded with previously observed footage. To this end, a method that highlights the difference between actual camera image and historic data observed earlier is proposed. Old video data is faded out to grey scale to mimic human peripheral vision. Specular highlights are removed with the help of texture synthesis to avoid distracting visual cues. The method is further evaluated on in vivo and phantom sequences by a detailed user study to examine the ability of the user in discerning temporal motion trajectories while visualising the expanded field of view, a feature that is of practical value for enhancing spatial awareness and orientation.
The difference between historic data and live video is integrated effectively. The use of a single texture domain generated by planar parameterisation is demonstrated for view expansion. Specular highlights can be removed through texture synthesis without introducing noticeable artefacts. The implicit encoding of motion trajectory of the endoscopic camera visualised by the proposed method facilitates both global awareness and temporal evolution of the scene.
Dynamic view expansion provides more context for navigation and orientation by establishing reference points beyond the camera’s field of view. Effective integration of visual cues is paramount for concise visualisation.
KeywordsView expansion Minimally invasive surgery Visualisation Surgical navigation
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