Online external beam radiation treatment simulator

  • Felix G. Hamza-LupEmail author
  • Ivan Sopin
  • Omar Zeidan
Original Article


Radiation therapy is an effective and widely accepted form of treatment for many types of cancer that requires extensive computerized planning. Unfortunately, current treatment planning systems have limited or no visual aid that combines patient volumetric models extracted from patient-specific CT data with the treatment device geometry in a 3D interactive simulation. We illustrate the potential of 3D simulation in radiation therapy with a web-based interactive system that combines novel standards and technologies. We discuss related research efforts in this area and present in detail several components of the simulator. An objective assessment of the accuracy of the simulator and a usability study prove the potential of such a system for simulation and training.


External beam radiation therapy Distributed training Three-dimensional simulation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Beange I, Nisbet A (2000) Collision prevention software tool for complex three-dimensional isocentric set-ups. Br J Radiol 73(869): 537–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hua C, Chang J, Yenice K, Chan M, Amols H (2004) A practical approach to prevent gantry-couch collision for linac-based radiosurgery. Med Phys 31(7): 2128–2134. doi: 10.1118/1.1764391 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Humm J, Pizzuto D, Fleischman E, Mohan R (1995) Collision detection and avoidance during treatment planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 33(5): 1101–1108. doi: 10.1016/0360-3016(95)00155-7 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Purdy JA et al (1993) In advances in 3-dimensional radiation treatment planning systems: room-view display with real time interactivity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 27(4): 933–944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tsiakalos MF, Scherebmann E, Theodorou K, Kappas C (2001) In graphical treatment simulation and automated collision detection for conformal and stereotactic radiotherapy treatment planning. Med Phys 28(7): 1359–1363. doi: 10.1118/1.1381552 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beavis A, Ward J, Bridge P, Appleyard R, Phillips R (eds) (2006) An immersive virtual environment for training of radiotherapy students and developing clinical experience. In: Proceedings of AAPM, Orlando, FL, USA, 30 Jul–3 Aug. Amer Assoc Physicists Medicine Amer Inst Physics, MelvilleGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Web3D Consortium. What is X3D? Accessed December 1, 2007. Available at
  8. 8.
    Hamza-Lup F, Sopin I, Zeidan O (2007) Towards 3D Web-based Simulation and Training Systems for Radiation Onco- logy. In: ADVANCE for Imaging and Oncology Administrators, pp 64–68Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    NEMA DICOM Homepage. Accessed 1 March 2007. Available at
  10. 10.
    Schroeder WJ, Martin KM, Lorensen WE (1996) The design and implementation of an object-oriented toolkit for 3D graphics and visualization. In: Proceedings of VIS, 27 Oct–1 Nov. San Francisco, CA, USAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© CARS 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Computer ScienceArmstrong Atlantic State UniversitySavannahUSA
  2. 2.M.D. Anderson Cancer Center OrlandoOrlandoUSA

Personalised recommendations