Characterisation of Phytophthora infestans Isolates of Potato Crops from Spain
The characterisation of Phytophthora infestans isolates is a key step in both monitoring population changes and designing control strategies. A collection of 57 isolates (33 from 2003 to 2005 and 24 from 2011 to 2014) of the Spanish population of P. infestans from different potato fields was characterised in this study. Mating types A1 and A2 have been identified for the first time in Spain by using CAPs markers. A total of 23 samples were classified as A1 mating type and 34 as A2 type. All isolates had the Ia mitochondrial haplotype with one exception which was IIa. Three clonal lineages of P. infestans were detected: 2_A1, 3_A2 and 13_A2 (Blue 13), where a sub-clonal variation was observed within this lineage (13_A2_1, 13_A2_2, 13_A2_3, 13_A2_4, 13_A2_15, 13_A2_68 and 13_A2_new). Two isolates denominated as ‘Misc’ could not be ascribed to any of the genotypes characterised. These results highlight the spread of pathogen clones across Europe during this period and the risks related to the presence of both P. infestans mating types are discussed.
KeywordsClonal lineage Late blight Mating type Mt-DNA haplotype Potato
The authors thank Juana Paez (Junta de Andalucia), Servando Alvarez (Inorde) and Domingo Rios (Cabildo de Tenerife) for sending isolates. David Cooke acknowledges funding from the Scottish Government.
This work was financed by INIA (RTA2013-00006-C03-01) and the Basque Government.
- Andújar E, Flores R, Páez JI (2004) Detección en España del tipo A2 de Phytophthora infestans. XII Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Fitopatología, Girona, Spain 12:244Google Scholar
- Cooke DEL, Cano LM, Raffaele S, Bain RA, Cooke LR, Etherington GJ, Deahl K, Farrer RA, Gilroy EM, Goss EM, Grünwald NJ, Hein I, MacLean D, McNicol JW, Randall E, Oliva RF, Pel MA, Shaw DS, Squires JN, Taylor MC, Vleeshouwers VGAA, Birch PRJ, Lees AK, Kamoun S (2012) Genome analyses of an aggressive and invasive lineage of the Irish potato famine pathogen. PLoS Pathog 8:e1002940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- FAOSTAT (2015) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Database, Available at: http://faostat.fao.org/
- Gavino PD, Fry WE (2002). Diversity in and evidence for selection on the mitochondrial genome of Phytophthora infestans. Mycologia 94:781–93Google Scholar
- Lees AK, Stewart JA, Lynott JS, Carnegie SF, Campbell H, Roberts AMI (2012) The effect of a dominant Phytophthora infestans genotype (13_A2) in Great Britain on host resistance to foliar late blight in commercial potato cultivars. Potato Res 55:125–134Google Scholar
- Li Y, Van Der Lee TAJ, Evenhuis A, van den Bosch GBM, van Bekkum PJ, Förch MG, van Gent-Pelzer MPE, van Raaij HMG, Jacobsen E, Huang SW, Govers F, Vleeshouwers VGAA, Kessel GJT (2012) Population dynamics of Phytophthora infestans in the Netherlands reveals expansion and spread of dominant clonal lineages and virulence in sexual offspring. G3 2:1529–1540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- R Core Team (2015) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL: http://R-project.org/
- Runno-Paurson E, Fry WE, Remmel T, Mänd M, Myers KL (2010) Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of estonian isolates of Phytophthora infestans in 2004-2007. J Plant Pathol 92:381–390Google Scholar
- Segura JM, de Cara M, Santos M, Tello J (2007) Phytophthora infestans mating types on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Southern Spain. Plant Dis 91:109Google Scholar
- Wills C (2003) The trouble with sex. New Sci 180:44–47Google Scholar