Potato Research

, Volume 56, Issue 3, pp 205–236 | Cite as

Booms, Busts, and Emerging Markets for Potatoes in East and Central Africa 1961–2010

  • Gregory J. Scott
  • Ricardo Labarta
  • Víctor Suarez
Article

Abstract

Potato production expanded more rapidly in Africa than in any other region of the world in recent years. This paper examines that phenomenon by focusing on the evolution of potato production, utilization, and trade in East and Central Africa. Based on an analysis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations annual secondary data over nearly the last 50 years complemented by a review of the literature, the findings note that the long-term upward trends in production and area harvested contrast with the sharp decline in the growth rates for output, area, and yields over the last decade. In recent years, output grew rapidly in some countries and declined in others. Emerging markets include fresh potatoes as well as French fries and crisps for the growing number of urban consumers and improved quality seed. The paper concludes with a series of policy recommendations aimed at catalyzing improvements in productivity and marketing as well as capitalizing on opportunities for industry.

Keywords

Consumption Private sector Processing Production Technology Trade 

References

  1. AATF (African Agricultural Technology Foundation) (2010) Mitigating the impact of drought. In: Tanzania: the WEMAS intervention. Policy brief. AATF-COSTECH (Tanzanian Commission for Science and Technology), Nairobi. Available at http://www.aatf-africa.org/userfiles/WEMA-TZ-policy-brief1.pdf. Accessed August 2012
  2. Abebe G, Bijman J, Ruben R, Omta O, Tsegaye A (2010) The role of seed/ware potato cooperatives in Ethiopia in improving quality and reducing transaction costs. Mimeo. International Potato Center (CIP), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  3. Abong GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, Kabira JN (2010) Consumption patterns diversity and characteristics of potato crisps in Nairobi Kenya. J Appl Biol Sci 32:1942–1955Google Scholar
  4. Agiro BT (2011) Analysis of socio-economic factors influencing potato production at household level: the case of Shashemene, Shalla and Siraro counties in West Arsi zone, Ethiopia. M.Sc. thesis, International Development Studies, Wageningen University, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  5. Alarcón J, Ordinola M (2002) Mercadeo de productos agropecuarios: teorías y aplicaciones al caso peruano. CARE–PRISMA–SAMCONET, LimaGoogle Scholar
  6. Anaya Chogo H (2009) The impact of deregulation on competitiveness and market integration: the case of South Africa’s potato exports. M.Sc. thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension & Rural Development, University of Pretoria, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  7. Andersson JA (1996) Potato cultivation in the Uporoto Mountains, Tanzania. Afr Aff 95:85–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anonymous (1995) Potatoes in the 1990s: situation and prospects of the world potato economy. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the International Potato Center (CIP), RomeGoogle Scholar
  9. Anonymous (2011) Tackling the food price crisis in Eastern and Central Africa with the humble potato: enhanced productivity and uptake through the “3G” revolution. USAID end of the project report, CIP, LimaGoogle Scholar
  10. Anonymous (2012a) A policymaker’s guide to crop diversification: the case of potato in Kenya. Draft to a collaborative study between FAO, KARI (Kenya Agricultural Research Institute), MoA (Ministry of Agriculture), NPCK (National Potato Council of Kenya) and CIP. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  11. Anonymous (2012b) FAOSTAT—crops. Available at http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/default.aspx#ancor. Accessed June 2012
  12. Anonymous (2012c) FAS–USDA. Available at http://www.fas.usda.gov/pecad2/highlights/2002/10/ethiopia/baseline/eth_annual_rainfall.htm. Accessed May 2013
  13. Anonymous (2012d) FAOSTAT—trade. Available at http://faostat.fao.org/site/342/default.aspx. Accessed July 2012
  14. Anonymous (2012e) CIP. Available at https://research.cip.cgiar.org/confluence/display/wpa/Kenya. Accessed August 2012
  15. Anonymous (2012f) BBC. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8211753.stm. Accessed August 2012
  16. Anonymous (2012g) Nairobi demography. Available at http://www.mapsofworld.com/cities/kenya/nairobi/demography.html. Accessed August 2012
  17. Anonymous (2012h) FAOSTAT—food balance sheets. Available at http://faostat.fao.org/site/354/default.aspx. Accessed August 2012
  18. Binswanger-Mkhize H, Beyerlee D, McCalla A, Morris M, Staatz J (2011) The growing opportunities for African agricultural development. Conference working paper 16. Prepared for the ASTI (Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators)/IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute)-FARA (Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa) conference, 5–7 December 2011, Accra, GhanaGoogle Scholar
  19. Bizimana T (2007) Underutilized crop diversity, seed systems, management and their implication on food security. Master’s thesis, Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Uppsala University, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  20. Börgel H, Arend B, Jacobi C, Kanyarukiga S, Kullaya S, Lemaga B, Mogoeka S, Wolfgang P (1980) Production, marketing and consumption of potatoes in the Ethiopian highlands. Addis Ababa University/Technical University of Berlin, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  21. CIP (International Potato Centre) (1999) Potato facts. Processed. CIP, LimaGoogle Scholar
  22. CIP (International Potato Centre) (2010) Potato facts. Processed. CIP, LimaGoogle Scholar
  23. CIP (International Potato Centre) (2012) Wealth creation through integrated development of the potato production and marketing sector in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia. Project technical progress report. March. CIP, LimaGoogle Scholar
  24. Crissman C, MacArthur Crissman L, Carli C (1993) Seed potato systems in Kenya: a case study. International Potato Centre (CIP), LimaGoogle Scholar
  25. CSA (Central Statistical Agency) (2002) Statistical report on area and production of crops. Part IIA. Central Statistical Agency, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  26. CSA (Central Statistical Agency) (2009) Agricultural sample survey 2008/2009 (2001 E.C.) vol. 1 report on area and production of crops. Statistical bulletin 446. Central Statistical Agency, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  27. De Groote H, Andam K, Mugo S, Hall M, Ngigi O, Munyua BG, Spielman DJ (2012) Consulting the stakeholders on pro-poor market segmentation of maize seed in Kenya. J Dev Agric Econ 4(3):71–77Google Scholar
  28. Diao X, Taffesse AS, Dorosh P, Thurlow J, Pratt AN, Yu B (2012) Ethiopia. In: Diao X, Thurlow J, Benin S, Fan S (eds) Strategies and priorities for African agriculture. Economywide perspective from country studies. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, pp 108–139Google Scholar
  29. dTS (Development and Training Services, Inc.) (2012) Compendium report: multi-sector evaluation of agriculture and livestock value chain activities in Kenya. Prepared for USAID. dTS, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  30. Dürr G (1983) Potato production and utilization in Rwanda. Social Science Department working paper 1983-1. International Potato Centre (CIP), LimaGoogle Scholar
  31. Dürr G, Lorenzl G (1980) Potato production and utilization in Kenya. International Potato Centre (CIP)/Technical University of Berlin/University of Nairobi, LimaGoogle Scholar
  32. Ehrhart C, Tweena M (2006) Climate change and poverty inTanzania. Realities and response options for CARE. Background report for CARE International poverty–climate change initiative. Available at http://www.care.dk/multimedia/pdf/web_english/Climate%20Change%20and%20Poverty%20in%20Tanzania%20-%20Country%20Profile.pdf. Accessed August 2012
  33. Emana B, Nigussie M (2011) Potato value chain analysis and development in Ethiopia. The case of Tigray and SNNP regions. Consultancy report. International Potato Centre (CIP) and USAID (United States Agency for International Development), Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  34. Fané I, Kribes R, Ndimurwango P, Nsengiyumva V, Nzang Onoyo C (2004) Les systèmes de production de la pomme de terre au Rwanda. Propositions d’actions de recherche et de développement dans les Provinces de Ruhengeri et Gisenyi. Serie de Documents de Trevail No. 122—Rwanda. Centre International pour la Recherche Agricole orientée vers le développement (ICRA), Reseaux des organizations paysaane du Rwanda (ROPARWA), Institut des Sciences Agronomiques (ISAR), MontpellierGoogle Scholar
  35. Fané I, Kribes R, Ndimurwango P, Nsengiyumva V, Nzang Onoyo C, Weenink B (2006) Linking actors for potato production and marketing. ROPARWA and IMBARAGA initiatives in northwestern Rwanda. In: Weenink B, Heermskerk W (eds) Farmers’ organizations and agricultural innovation. Case studies from Benin, Rwanda and Tanzania. Bulletin 374. Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  36. FAO (2009) International year of the potato 2008: new light on a hidden treasure. An end of year review. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  37. FAO (2010) Strengthening potato value chains. Technical and policy options for developing countries. FAO and Common Fund for Commodities (CFC), RomeGoogle Scholar
  38. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2008) GIEWS special report FAO/WFPCFSAM to Malawi. FAO, Rome. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y6811e/y6811e00.htm. Accessed August 2012
  39. Ferris S, Okoboi G, Crissman C, Ewell P, Lemaga B (2001) Uganda’s Irish potato sector. Mimeo. IITA-Foodnet, CIP, PRAPACE, ASERECA, KampalaGoogle Scholar
  40. Gildemacher P (2010) Potato system diagnosis in East Africa: an innovation system analysis. In: Strengthening potato value chains. Technical and policy options for developing countries. FAO and Common Fund for Commodities (CFC), Rome, pp 85–91Google Scholar
  41. Gildemacher P, Kaguongo W, Ortiz O, Tesfaye A, Woldegiorgis G, Wagoire W, Kakuhenzire R, Kinyae P, Nyongesa M, Struik PC, Leeuwis C (2009a) Improving potato production in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia: a system diagnostics. Potato Res 52:173–205Google Scholar
  42. Gildemacher P, Demo P, Barker I, Kaguongo W, Woldegiorgis G, Wagoire W, Wakahiu M, Leeuwis C, Struik PC (2009b) A description of seed potato systems in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia. Am J Potato Res 86:373–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Goossens F (2002) Potato marketing in Rwanda. Agricultural policy development project research report no. 12. Abt Associates Inc., BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  44. Guenthner J (2001) The international potato industry. Woodhead, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  45. Gutteridge MJ (1983) Potential for Scottish seed potato exports in Sub-Saharan Africa. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, School of Agriculture, University of Edinburgh, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  46. Haggblade S, Dewina R (2010) Staple food prices in Uganda. Prepared for the Comesa policy seminar on “Variation in staple food prices: causes, consequence, and policy options,” Maputo, Mozambique, 25–26 January 2010 under the African Agricultural Marketing Project (AAMP)Google Scholar
  47. Hakiza JJ, Turyamureeba G, Kakuhenzire RM, Odongo B, Mwanga RM (2000) Potato and sweetpotato improvement in Uganda: a historical perspective. In: Adipala E, Nampala P, Osiru M (eds) Proceedings of the 5th conference of the African Potato Association, Kampala, Uganda, 29 May–2 June, African Potato Association and the National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO), Kampala, vol. 5, pp 47–58Google Scholar
  48. Haverkort A (1986) Yield level of potato crops in Central Africa. Agric Syst 21:227–235Google Scholar
  49. Hijmans R (2003) The effect of climate change on global potato production. Am J Potato Res 80:271–280Google Scholar
  50. Hirpa A, Meuwissen MPM, Tesfaye A, Lommen WJM, Oude Lansink A, Tsegaye A, Struik PC (2010) Analysis of seed potato systems in Ethiopia. Am J Potato Res 87(6):537–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hoeffler H, Maingi G (2005) Rural–urban linkages in practice: promoting agricultural value chains. Entwickling und Ländelicher Raum 5:26–28Google Scholar
  52. Horton D (1978) Potato atlas. International statistics on potato production and utilization. CIP, LimaGoogle Scholar
  53. Horton D (1987) Potatoes: production, marketing, and programs for developing countries. Westview, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  54. Horton D (1988) Underground crops: long-term trends in production of roots and tubers. Winrock International, MorriltonGoogle Scholar
  55. Horton D, Lynam J, Knipscheer H (1984) Root crops in developing countries—an economic appraisal. In: Scheidler F, Rincon H (eds) Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops, Lima, 21–26 February. CIP, Lima, pp 9–39Google Scholar
  56. Kaguongo W, Gildemacher P, Demo P, Wagoire W, Kinyae P, Andrade J, Forbes G, Fuglie K, Thiele G (2008) Farmers’ practices and adoption of improved varieties in Kenya and Uganda. Social Sciences working paper 2008-5. International Potato Center (CIP), LimaGoogle Scholar
  57. Kamau M, Olwande J, Githuku J (2011) Consumption and expenditure on key food commodities in urban households: the case of Nairobi. Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development working paper no. 41. Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  58. Kasina M, Ndiritu JH (2010) Policy implementation and its economic impact on potato marketing value chain. In: Transforming agriculture for improved livelihoods through agricultural product value chains. Proceedings of the 12th KARI biennial scientific conference, 8–12 November, Nairobi, pp 1198–1205. Available at http://www.kari.org/biennialconference. Accessed July 2012
  59. Kassa B, Beyene H (2001) Efficacy and economics of fungicide spray in the control of late blight of potato in Ethiopia. Afr Potato Sci J 9(1):245–250Google Scholar
  60. Kibaara B, Ariga J, Olwande J, Jayne TS (2008) Trends in Kenyan agricultural productivity: 1997–2007. Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development working paper no. 41. Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  61. Kirumba W, Kinyae P, Muchara M (2004) Irish potato market survey: promotion of private sector development in agriculture. German Technical Cooperation and Ministry of Agriculture, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  62. KIT (Royal Tropical Institute), Faida MaLi (Faida Market Link Co.), IIRR (International Institute for Rural Reconstruction) (2006) Chain empowerment: supporting African farmers to develop markets. KIT, Faida Maili, International Institute for Rural Reconstruction (IIRR), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  63. Labarta R (2012) The genetic improvement of potato and sweetpotato in Sub-Saharan Africa. Report to the diffusion and impact of improved varieties in Africa (DIIVA) project, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  64. Labarta R, Mulwa C (2011) Understanding the profitability of the potato seed value chain in Kenya: evidence from the dissemination of 3G technologies. Mimeo. Research report prepared for USAID-Nairobi, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  65. Loveridge S (1988) Uses of farm and market survey data to inform food security policy in Rwanda. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, East LandingGoogle Scholar
  66. Low JA (1997) Potato in Southwest Uganda: threats to sustainable production. Afr Crop Sci J 5(4):395–412Google Scholar
  67. Low J, Barker I, Bonierbale M, Crissman C, Forbes G, Lemaga B, Priou S (2007) Emerging trends and advances in potato research relevant to defining the way forward for the potato sector in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Khalf-allah AA (ed) Potato, sweet potato, and root crops improvement for facing poverty and hunger in Africa. Proceedings of the 7th conference of the African Potato Association, Alexandria, Egypt, 22–26 October 2007, African Potato Association, Alexandria, vol. 7, pp 8–17Google Scholar
  68. Lutaladio NB, Ewell PT, Kidanemarian H (1995) Advances in potato research in Eastern and Central Africa. In: Root crops and poverty alleviation. Proceedings of the 6th triennial symposium of the International Society of Tropical Root Crops—Africa branch (ISTRC-AB), 22–28 October, Lilongwe, ISTRC, pp 555–561Google Scholar
  69. Mendoza H, Debela S, Martella D (1994) Developments in potato research in Central Africa. Technical paper no. 5. SD publication series. Office of Sustainable Development Bureau for Africa. USAID, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  70. Mpogole H, Kadigi R (2012) Round potato (Solanum tuberosum) profitability and implications for variety selections in the southern highlands of Tanzania. J Dev Agric Econ 4(9):258–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mulema JMK, Adipala E, Olanya OM (2005) Significance of tuber blight in late blight epidemics in Uganda. Afr Crop Sci Proc 6:329–334Google Scholar
  72. Munyemana A, Von Oppen M (1999) La pomme de terre au Rwanda: une analyse dune filière à hautes potentialités. Une co-production du Centre Internationale de la Pomme de terre, Lima, Pérou et de l’Université de HohenheimGoogle Scholar
  73. Muthoni J, Nyamongo DO (2009) A review of constraints to Irish potato production in Kenya. J Hortic For 1(7):098–102Google Scholar
  74. Muthoni J, Mbiyu M, Kabira JN (2011) Up-scaling production of certified potato seed tubers in Kenya: potential of aeroponics technology. J Hortic For 3(8):238–243Google Scholar
  75. Namwata BML, Lwelamira J, Mzirai OB (2010) Adoption of improved agricultural technologies for Irish potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) among farmers in Mbeya Rural district, Tanzania: a case of Ilungu ward. J Anim Plant Sci 8(1):927–935Google Scholar
  76. Ngeno V, Langat BK, Rop W, Chepngeno W, Kipsat MJ (2011) Economic analysis of soil fertility restoration options in potato-bean of gardening intercropping in South-rift, Kenya. J Dev Agric Econ 3(10):487–491Google Scholar
  77. NISR (National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda) (2010) National agricultural survey 2008. NISR, KigaliGoogle Scholar
  78. Obado J (2009) Wealth creation through integrated development of the potato production and marketing sector in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia. Ethiopia baseline report to the Common Fund for Commodities, Mimeo (December), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  79. Obare GA, Nyagaka DO, Nguyo W, Mwakubo SM (2010) Are Kenyan smallholders allocatively efficient? Evidence from Irish potato producers in Nyandarua North district. J Dev Agric Econ 2(3):078–085Google Scholar
  80. Ooko GA, Kabira JA (2011) Stability of three newly released potato varieties for processing into crisps and French fries. Afr J Food Agric Nutr Dev 11(6):5266–5281Google Scholar
  81. Prakash, A (2010) Introduction. The role of potato in developing country food systems. In: Strengthening potato value chains. Technical and policy options for developing countries. FAO and Common Fund for Commodities (CFC), Rome, pp 14–24Google Scholar
  82. Rosegrant MW, Ringler C, Sulser TB, Ewing M, Palazzo A, Zhu T, Nelson GC, Koo J, Robertson R, Msangi S, Batka M (2009) Agriculture and food security under global change: prospects for 2025/2050. Paper prepared for the Strategy Committee of the CGIAR. Mimeo. IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute) and CIP (International Potato Centre), Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  83. SAGCOT (Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania) (2011) Investment blueprint. Appendix IV value chain and market analysis. Draft. SAGCOT, Dar es SalaamGoogle Scholar
  84. Saka VW (2000) Potato production in Malawi. In: Adipala E, Nampala P, Osiru M (eds) Proceedings of the 5th conference of the African Potato Association, 29 May–2 June, Kampala, African Potato Association and the National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO), Kampala, vol. 5, pp 39–42Google Scholar
  85. Scott G (1988) Potatoes in Central Africa: a study of Burundi, Rwanda and Zaire. International Potato Center (CIP), LimaGoogle Scholar
  86. Scott G (1992) Trends and prospects for the potato south of the Sahara. In: Scott G, Ferguson PI, Herrera J (eds) Product development for root and tuber crops. Vol. III—Africa. Proceedings of the international workshop, Ibadan, Nigeria, 26, October–2, November 1991. International Potato Center (CIP), Lima, pp 121–132Google Scholar
  87. Scott G (1995) Wall-to-wall fieldwork: secondary data collection for food systems research. In: Scott G (ed) Prices, products, and people: analyzing agricultural markets in developing countries. Lynne Rienner Pub.; International Potato Center (CIP), Boulder, pp 167–185, ISBN 1-55587-609-9Google Scholar
  88. Scott G (2002) Maps, models, and muddles: world trends and patterns in potato revisited. Potato Res 45:45–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Scott G (2011) Growth rates for potatoes in Latin America in comparative perspective: 1961–07. Am J Potato Res 88:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Scott G, Suarez V (1992) Transforming traditional food crops: product development for roots and tubers. In: Scott G, Ferguson PI, Herrera J (eds) Product development for root and tuber crops. Vol. III—Africa. Proceedings of the international workshop, Ibadan, Nigeria, 26, October–2, November 1991. International Potato Center (CIP), Lima, pp 3–23Google Scholar
  91. Scott G, Suarez V (2011) Growth rates for potato in India 1961–2009 and their implications for industry. Potato J 38(2):100–112Google Scholar
  92. Scott G, Suarez V (2012a) The rise of Asia as the center of global potato production and some implications for industry. Potato J 39(1):1–22Google Scholar
  93. Scott G, Suarez V (2012b) Limits to growth or growth to the limits? Trends and prospects for potatoes in China and their implications for industry. Potato Res 55(2):135–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Scott G, Suarez V (2012c) From Mao to McDonald’s: emerging markets for potatoes and potato products in China 1961–2007. Am J Potato Res 89(3):216–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Scott G, Rosegrant M, Ringler C (2000) Roots and tubers for the 21st century: trends, projections, and policy options. Food, Agriculture, and the Environment discussion paper 31. IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute) and CIP (International Potato Centre), WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  96. Scott G, Labarta R, Suarez V (2013) Benchmarking food crop markets in Southern Africa: the case of potatoes and potato products 1961–2010. Am J Potato Res. doi:10.1007/s12230-013-9322-3
  97. Taffesse AS, Dorosh P, Asrat S (2011) Crop production in Ethiopia: regional patterns and trends. Ethiopia Strategy Support Program II (ESSP II) ESSP II working paper no. 0016. Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI)-International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  98. Tesfaye A, Lemaga B, Mwakasendo J, Nzohabonayoz Z, Mutware J, Wanda KY, Kinyae PM, Ortiz O, Crissman C, Thiele G (2010) Markets for fresh and frozen potato chips in the ASERECA region and the potential for regional trade: Ethiopia, Tanzania, Rwanda, Kenya, Burundi and Uganda. Social Sciences working paper 2010-1. International Potato Centre (CIP), LimaGoogle Scholar
  99. Thiele G, Theisen K, Bonierbale M, Walker T (2010) Targeting the poor and hungry with potato science. Potato J 37(3–4):75–86Google Scholar
  100. Thurlow J, Kiringai J, Gautam M (2012) Kenya. In: Diao X, Thurlow J, Benin S, Fan S (eds) Strategies and priorities for African agriculture. Economywide perspective from country studies. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, pp 71–106Google Scholar
  101. Tschirley DL, Ayieko MW (2008) Assessment of Kenya’s domestic horticultural production and marketing systems and lessons for future. Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development working paper no. 30. Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  102. Tschirley DL, Ayieko MW, Mathenge M, Weber M (2004) Where do consumers in Nairobi purchase their food and why does this matter? the need for investment to improve Kenya’s “traditional” food marketing system. Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development policy brief no. 3. Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  103. UBOS (Ugandan Bureau of Statistics) (2007) Ugandan national household survey 2005/06. Report on the agricultural module. UBOS, KampalaGoogle Scholar
  104. Van der Zaag D, Horton D (1983) Potato production and utilization in world perspective with special reference to the tropics and sub-tropics. Potato Res 26:323–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Van der Zaag P, Bicamupaka M, Tegera P (1984) The potato in Rwanda. World Crops (Sept/Oct):157–159Google Scholar
  106. von Braun J, de Haen H, Blanken J (1991) Commercialization of agriculture under population pressure: effects on production, consumption, and nutrition in Rwanda. Research report 85. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  107. Wachira G, Barker I, Schulte-Geldermann E (2010) Effect of field multiplication generation on seed potato (Solanum tuberosum) quality in Kenya. Paper presented at the symposium of Potato Agro-physiology, European Association of Potato Research (EAPR), Nevsehir, Turkey, 20–24 September, pp 163–169Google Scholar
  108. Walingo A, Lung’aho C, N’gang’a N, Kinyae PM, Kabira JN (2004) Potato marketing, storage, processing and utilization in Kenya. Proceedings of the 6th congress of the African Potato Association, 5–10 April, Agadir, Morocco, African Potato Association, pp 389–397Google Scholar
  109. Walker T, Schmiediche P, Hijmans R (1999) World patterns and trends in the potato crop: an economic and geographic survey. Potato Res 42:241–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Walker T, Thiele G, Suarez V, Crissman C (2011) Hindsight and foresight about potato production and consumption. Social Sciences working paper 2011-5. International Potato Centre (CIP), LimaGoogle Scholar
  111. Wang F (2010) Terminal markets as the fundamental driver for seed potato. In: Strengthening potato value chains. Technical and policy options for developing countries. FAO and Common Fund for Commodities (CFC), Rome, pp 71–75Google Scholar
  112. Wang’ombe JG (2008) The potato value chain in Kenya and Uganda. DBA assignment. Maastricht School of Management, MaastrichtGoogle Scholar
  113. Weatherspoon DD, Reardon T (2003) The rise of supermarkets in Africa: implications for agrifood systems and the rural poor. Dev Policy Rev 21(3):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wilkinson J, Rocha R (2009) Agro-industry trends, patterns and development impacts. In: da Silva C, Baker D, Shepherd A, Jenane C, Miranda-da-Cruz S (eds) Agro-industries for development. CAB International and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Wallingford, pp 46–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Woolfe J (1987) The potato in the human diet. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. World Bank (2011) World Development Indicators (Edition: April 2011). ESDS International, University of Manchester, ManchesterGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© EAPR 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory J. Scott
    • 1
  • Ricardo Labarta
    • 2
  • Víctor Suarez
    • 3
  1. 1.CENTRUM Católica Graduate Business SchoolCentro de Negocios de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de PerúLimaPerú
  2. 2.International Potato Center (CIP)NairobiKenya
  3. 3.International Potato Center (CIP)LimaPeru

Personalised recommendations