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Principles Underpinning Innovative Mobile Learning: Stakeholders’ Priorities

  • Kevin BurdenEmail author
  • Matthew Kearney
  • Sandy Schuck
  • Paul Burke
Original Paper


This article discusses the results of a survey that measured school teachers’ and mobile learning (m-learning) experts’ perceptions of the relative importance and effectiveness of various pedagogical principles underpinning m-learning designs. A scan of relevant literature produced a set of articles describing effective innovative m-learning. Principles underpinning the learning activities in these articles were identified. These principles were then provided to respondents so that they could identify the most important ones relative to the others for designing effective and innovative m-learning tasks. A rigorous Best/Worst Scaling (BWS) survey was used to collect these data. This is the first time that a BWS has been conducted with regard to mobile pedagogical principles. Findings showed that principles related to authenticity were rated most important relative to other principles by the m-learning experts and principles related to personalisation and customisation were rated most important by practising teachers. Other principles that have been used in innovative m-learning designs, such as gamification and intergenerational learning, were seen as least important by all respondents. The findings will inform design of professional development activities, in particular, those pertaining to an app being developed in an Erasmus + project, Developing and Evaluating Innovative Mobile Pedagogies (DEIMP).


Effective mobile learning Pedagogical principles Best/worse scaling Innovative mobile practice Teacher beliefs M-learning activities Mobile technologies School-aged learners Practitioner teachers, Delphi panel, DEIMP 



The study is part of a larger project led by Prof. Burden from University of Hull, UK, titled Designing and Evaluating Innovative Mobile Pedagogies – DEIMP. The project is funded by the European Union under the Erasmus+ funding stream (2017-1-UK01-KA201-036781).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Ethics Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the University of Hull (approval no. No. 20162017009) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications & Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Arts, Cultures and EducationThe University of HullHullUK
  2. 2.STEM Education Futures Research CentreUniversity of Technology Sydney (UTS)SydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Business Intelligence and Data Analytics (BIDA) Research Centre, UTS Business SchoolUniversity of Technology Sydney (UTS)SydneyAustralia

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