How Useful are our Models? Pre-Service and Practicing Teacher Evaluations of Technology Integration Models
We report on a survey of K-12 teachers and teacher candidates wherein participants evaluated known models (e.g., TPACK, SAMR, RAT, TIP) and provided insight on what makes a model valuable for them in the classroom. Results indicated that: (1) technology integration should be coupled with good theory to be effective, (2) classroom experience did not generally influence teacher values and beliefs related to technology integration, (3) some models may be more useful to teachers than others, (4) the widespread use of a model does not necessarily reflect usefulness, (5) useful models for teachers should engender real-world, concrete application, and (6) visual appeal of a model is largely subjective, but some visual representations might convey notions of practicality. Conclusions should be used to help researchers and practitioners understand the practical application value of technology integration models in real-world settings.
KeywordsTechnology integration Theoretical models TPACK SAMR Rat Tip
This study was funded by the J. A. and Kathryn Albertson Foundation.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Dr. Royce Kimmons declares that he has no conflict of interest. Cassidy Hall declares that she has no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Archambault, L., & Crippen, K. (2009). Examining TPACK among K-12 online distance educators in the United States. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 71–88.Google Scholar
- Becker, H. J. (2000). Who’s wired and who’s not: children’s access to and use of computer technology. Children and Computer Technology, 10(2), 44–75.Google Scholar
- Cuban, L. (1988). Constancy and change in schools (1880s to the present). In P. W. Jackson (Ed.), Contributing to educational change: Perspectives on research and practice (pp. 85–105). Berkeley: McCutchan.Google Scholar
- Feyerabend, P. K. (1975). Against method: outline of an anarchistic theory of knowledge. London: New Left Books.Google Scholar
- Hughes, J. (2005). The role of teacher knowledge and learning experiences in forming technology-integrated pedagogy. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(2), 277–302.Google Scholar
- Kimmons, R. (2015). Examining TPACK’s theoretical future. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 23(1), 53–77.Google Scholar
- Kimmons, R., & Hall, C. (2016a). Emerging technology integration models. In G. Veletsianos (Ed.), Emergence and innovation in digital learning: Foundations and applications. Edmonton: Athabasca University Press.Google Scholar
- Kimmons, R., & Hall, C. (2016b). Toward a broader understanding of teacher technology integration beliefs and values. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 24(3), 309–335.Google Scholar
- Kuhn, T. S. (1996). The structure of scientific revolutions (Third ed.). Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Kuhn, T. (2013). Objectivity, value judgment, and theory choice. In A. Bird & J. Ladyman (Eds.), Arguing About Science (pp. 74–86). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2007). Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK): confronting the wicked problems of teaching with technology. In R. Carlsen et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2007 (pp. 2214–2226). Chesapeake: AACE.Google Scholar
- Puentedura, R. R. (2003). A matrix model for designing and assessing network-enhanced courses. Hippasus. Retrieved from http://www.hippasus.com/resources/matrixmodel/
- Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2013). Integrating educational technology into teaching (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Willingham, D. T. (2012). When can you trust the experts? How to tell good science from bad in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar